Up until this point the discussion has centred around linear or angle codes that are reasonably decipherable in the Circlestone layout. Some that relate to the rising or setting azimuths of the sun are speculative and must be verified by on-site observation. It's relatively easy to see that the 243-degree winter solstice sunset, for example, was the intended benchmark, but did it work exactly to that in practice?

Let's now discuss the intended circumference codes derived from the length and breadth diameters of the site:

Figure 13: Sturdy, durable cargo vessels like this Phoenician "round ship" are positively known to have transported tin from the mines of Cornwall, England back to the eastern end of the Mediterranean from 1350 BC. Similar mining operations were being carried out on the northern shores of Lake Superior, where an estimated 500,000,000 pounds of copper were extracted in antiquity…none of which stayed in America. Evidence would suggest that the copper was transported back to the Eastern Mediterranean. Similar mining operations were being carried out at the far reaches of the globe…like at Sarina Beach, North Queensland, Australia, where mining, smelting of ore and building of a quay for loading ships took place. A similar smelter was recently found in Oklahoma (see ), then quickly covered by government bulldozers. It is very apparent that ancient ships were ranging all over the world in search of resources for thousands of years before the Christian era. The mathematical concepts found within ruined ancient structures like the pyramids or Stonehenge attest to the fact that ancient civilisations had a perfect knowledge of the size of the Earth and how to grid reference it for successful navigation to any point of the globe.

In the very near vicinity of Circlestone observatory is purported to be, "The Lost Dutchman's Mine". Was a group from the Eastern Mediterranean or Europe undertaking mining operations in Arizona's Superstition Mountains? Was Circlestone Observatory set out so that the mining colony could always remember and teach astronomical/ navigational principles that would ensure safe passage back to their former homeland? The "very standard and expected" mathematical layout of the Circlestone site would suggest that this was the case.


Ancient astronomer mathematicians built sites like Circlestone as repositories of codes and places where initiates to the astronomical arts could be taught the age-old principles. These initiates were the brightest, most adept children who were set apart as the "few to bless the many". Their task was to learn, preserve and use the great knowledge for the benefit of regional society and their responsibility extended to teaching many others during the course of a lifetime of service.

It has been mentioned that there was a north-south diameter at Circlestone of 136.08 feet and that it coded the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle in its radius (68.04 feet). The "customised" circle produced from this diameter was used to calculate the calendar. Before proceeding with a full explanation of how this circle worked it's necessary to first comment upon various ways that the ratio PI was used or manipulated in antiquity for the creation of workable mnemonic codes.


The ancient Sabbatical calendar was lunisolar, which meant it tracked both the Sun & Moon simultaneously. It also worked to a "raw count system" using weeks of 7-days, months of 28-days with 13 months per year (364-days) that ran undisturbed for 7 solar years before it was fully corrected during a festival.

The 425.25 feet circuit code provided all of the essential knowledge for staying abreast of both solar and lunar positions within the 7 X 7 years of the Sabbatical calendar system. It simultaneously worked for calculating daily lunar positions within the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle. The sum of 425.25 is 1/16th of 6804.


We have discussed the means whereby the 136.08 feet north-south internal measurement was converted to a coded circumference using the ratio of 1 to 3.125…the same ratio for converting miles to leagues.
We will now convert the 132 feet (east-west) diameter to its coded circumference by using the navigational rendition of PI @ 3.141818182. This achieves a perfect whole number when "11" series linear distances (like 132) are converted to sexagesimal circumferences to be broken down into degrees, minutes and seconds of arc (with a second of arc being 1/360th of a degree).
The "11" series diameter circles can be broken down equally as well into 320th parts and reduce in 40th parts through two stages thereafter in a similar manner as minutes and seconds of arc reduce sexagesimally.


In the book, Circlestone, A Superstition Mountain Mystery, Swanson & Kollenborn write, 'Circlestone is not a "perfect" circle, the diameter measuring 133 feet at most points but 140 feet at one tangential point…The entrance to the circle is 3 feet wide, the average width of the wall measures 3 feet, and the height of the existing high point of the wall is 5½ feet. The center structure within the circle is 17 feet square' (pg. 67).

The 133 feet of internal diameter for "most points" was intended to convey a true circumference of 420 feet or 5040 inches.
The "140 feet at one tangential point" was intended to convey a circumference of 440 feet or 5280 inches.
The "17 feet square" central structure was coded to convey 17.01 feet per side or 68.04 feet for the full perimeter in remembrance, once again, of the lunar nutation cycle @ 6804-days.

Both the 420 feet & 440 feet values are derived directly from the "flat floor" altar atop the Great Pyramid and are universal codes for world navigation using two varied systems… one based upon a sexagesimal/ septimal series and another based upon an "11" series.

Figure 14: The assumption is that the Great Pyramid once had a pointed top, but it was lost, discarded or dismantled at some point of history. The fact is that it has never been known to have a pointed top throughout its long recorded history and it is evident that it was deliberately built to have a flat floor altar sitting atop it. Trigonometry dictates that the square altar had to have sides 44 feet long. Seven PHI reductions of the pyramid's PHI assigned base length achieve the value of 42 feet. It is evident that the numbers 44 & 42 were prominently represented atop the Great Pyramid and that both relate to navigation or calculating the size of the Earth under the sexagesimal, septimal and 11 series systems of numbers. The trigonometric opportunities allowed for a terrace, set 3 feet lower than the altar, upon which the astronomer priests could work. The altar appears to have functioned as a "plane table", for accurately viewing (across the expanse of the table to the opposite edge) the alighting positions of stars out to all 4 quarters of the Earth. Calibration marks on the table edges would have allowed for accurate degree angle calculations of daily stellar positions.

Figure 15: There is a layered geometric system of star and cross pattern geometry found on sites like Rennes Le Chateau in Southern France or at the Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara in New Zealand. It's also inferred at Stonehenge or the Octagon of Newark, Ohio. The above picture is a final abbreviation of the standardised layered geometry, based upon the earliest "zodiacs" found in the east or pictorial elements found upon the Egyptian Hypocephalus funerary amulet. A full assessment of the external and internal measurements of the 3 main pyramids shows that they were set up as a "World Bureau of Standards of Weights, Measures, Volumes, Angles, Navigation & Astronomical Methodologies". In the above picture 2 outer circles and 2 outer squares are shown (blue and yellow sets). The blue set extends to the altar's edge (44 feet diameter). The yellow set extends to within a foot of the altar's edge (42 feet diameter). Both sets constituted dynamic values used in world navigation. Although the Great Pyramid is in a ruined state, its eternal geometry dictates exactly what it was capable of coding mathematically. These codes were, in turn, dispersed to all parts of the globe and are strongly represented in sites like Circlestone.

Figure 16: This is what overlaying circles of 420 feet circumference (blue) and 440 feet circumference (red) would look like on the Circlestone site. Regardless of the deliberately inbuilt meandering nature of the circuit wall, accurate calibration marking was still easily accomplished. It's probable that at the time of construction a series of painted marks were included (probably using different colours) on the inner and outer rims of a very flat-topped wall surface. The heaped and irregular state of the top of the wall in modern times in no way represents how it would have looked when in its former pristine condition.


The Circlestone site has a very interesting "straight section of wall" feature built into, which codes both a linear distance and an angle. By working across a carefully scaled plan, based upon Tom Kollenborn's measurements (which might well be based upon a topographical photograph) the "best guess" length of this straight section of wall is 44 feet. This would make very good sense, inasmuch as it could also be symbolically read by the builders as 43.2 feet.

The wall section is on an azimuth angle of 25.2-degrees, which is one of the most dynamic codes of antiquity.

The straight section of wall infers a rectangle, stretching across the site to touch opposite wall positions. Let's reconstruct what this rectangle would look like and analyse its significance in carrying codes of area.

Figure 17: A rectangle is created based upon the length of straight wall section and how it relates in distance to a 90-degrees opposed position across the site, wall to wall. The upper line of the rectangle runs for 125 feet to touch the wall with relative perfection. The width of the rectangle is 44 feet. In this instance both length and breadth of the rectangle are fractions of the "11" series league of 16500 feet. The length of 125 feet is 1/132nd of a league and the length of 44 feet is 1/375th (½ of 750) of a league.

Figure 18: At Stonehenge there is a coded rectangle known as the "Station stones" rectangle, which served as a very exact surveying pattern leading to the accurate construction of Stonehenge. The builders of the Circlestone site appear to have used a variation on the same approach, starting with a carefully coded central rectangle. Let's identify some final attributes.


On the 3rd of December 2001, I was getting on with a research project when I received a "whirlwind" visit from a pseudo-hippy stranger called Jeff, a self described Druid-Shaman, seemingly fresh in from Arizona. He assigned me the task of "solving" Circlestone, on behalf of his American Indian colleagues. He then layered me with maps and a tattered book with several pages missing, did Hopi incantations on my back step, put a greenstone pendant around my neck and told me I was initiated into his druidic order.

After he'd left and I'd recovered, I had a look at the odd assortment of materials he'd given me to work with and was immediately drawn to the Circlestone site because of its size and the obvious laborious effort expended in its construction.
The research materials were fragmented and it was initially difficult to assess whether or not I had enough to proceed with any form of realistic analysis. I also had 3 large research projects in the works, so Circlestone would have to go on the backburner till late January 2002.

I would like to thank George & Audrey Delange of Phoenix, Arizona for coming to my aid and supplying missing materials, which allowed this analysis to proceed.
Having lived in several of the South-western States and being the son of a rancher from Spring Valley Nevada, I have a particular affection for that large and picturesque region of the United States.

It is my sincere hope that this analysis will be of assistance to Jeff's American Indian colleagues and to all researchers of ancient sites scattered throughout the southwest…task half completed…

Martin Doutré (Druidic Inferior Rhymer).
Auckland, New Zealand. January 31st, 2002.