EXTERNAL GEOMETRY AND CODES

In the western sector of the site (left) are faint indications of lines that we'll now deal with. They are, for the most part, sufficiently detectible in Google Earth's satellite imagery to get good measurements over. The coded angles within each line seen are easily decipherable within the very exacting confines of AutoCAD architectural computer program

The western sector of the site, showing the secondary lines to be analysed as per their distance and angle codes. It will be noted that there are other lines present that have not received superimposed yellow lines from AutoCAD and these will be discussed in a following section. It will also be seen that, on the left hand side of the picture, a long linking line begins its diagonal run from the bottom of the rectangle and disappears off the picture. It ultimately runs for 5000-feet, from the western cairn seen above to another cairn on yet another giant rectangle. Two closely related degree angles are coded into this overland linear geometry, from two clearly marked stations on the cairn further southwest. The coded angles are 54.432-degrees return & 234.375-degrees from the cairn pictured above to the other one. Both the 54.432 & 234.375 values form mathematical progressions that were anciently used in navigation.

1. The overall distance up this entire trapezoid side carries the lunar code, 283.5-feet, but the length is also broken into segments. The segment we will deal with now is 156.25 feet and the angle is 168.75-degrees.

A mathematical progression based upon this length value goes: 156.25, 312.5 (note: the ancient British league was 3.125-miles or 16500 feet), 468.75, 625, 781.25, 937.5, ... 1250 ...2500, ... 6875 (note: under the "11" family navigational system 1-degree of arc was 68.75-miles), etc. It appears obligatory that this length would have carried four more close proximity codes, 157.090909 (157 & 1/11th), 157.1428572 (157 & 1/7th), 157.08 (for a pure rendition of PI X 50 ... the length of the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid was measured to be this value), & 157.5 (1/4th of a stadia), as all five lengths were mnemonic codes to provide differing renditions of half-PI for variable calculations. An example would be: 7920-miles (the Earth's diameter) X 3.125 = 24750-miles.

The angle of 168.75 is lunar coding and occurs repeatedly at Nazca.

2. The actual beginning and end of this line are only faintly descendible now, and future investigations might indicate that the line contains a slightly increased code to the one here identified. To all appearances, the line seems to indicate 315-feet and the angle is positively 126-degrees.

The distance, if it is ultimately found to be correct, is half a Greek stadia or 30 Hebrew Reeds (300 Greek feet and 150 Assyrian cubits). It also equates to 180 Hebrew or Celtic Royal Cubits (of 21-inches each) or a variety of shorter known Hebrew cubits (i.e) 216 cubits of 17.5-inches each or 225 old Hebrew cubits of 16.8-inches each. The same distance would be 324 Roman overland feet of 11.66666-inches each, 64.8 Roman Paces or 162 Swedish Aln, etc., etc.

The 315-feet distance would also mnemonically code values of PI @ 3.15, 3.142857143, 3.141818182, 3.1416 & 3.125.

The angle encountered here compliments the 315 code. It is 126-degrees and an expression of the Hebrew Reed (126-inches). The value is very important to both navigation and lunar calculations.

3. This segment of the trapezoid is 118.125-feet and the angle is 168.75-degrees.

The value of 118.125-days is 4-lunar months. It is also the length used in the 3.4.5 triangle formula that the Khafre Pyramid was built in accordance with.

The angle has been dealt with above.

4. The distance is 777.6-feet and the angle is 87.5-degrees.

The 777.6-feet length is navigational coding and a mathematical progression based upon this value goes: 777.6, 1555.2, 2332.8, 3110.4, 3888, 4665.6, 5443.2, 6220.8,...9331.2,... 11664,... 12441.6,... 24883.2. It will be seen from this that the progression relates to the equatorial circumference of the Earth @ 24883.2-miles. Under this system 777.6-miles would be 1/32nd of the equatorial circumference. Values taken from this mathematical progression featured anciently in Mediterranean weights and volume standards. In the following table the left and middle standards are Sumerian-Babylonian Royal "Weights" and the third panel to the far right shows Egyptian volumes:

 ROYAL SINGLE STANDARD. 1 Talent……… 466560 grains, equals: 60 Mina……… @ 7776 grains, or: 3600 Shekel….. @ 129.6 grains. ROYAL DOUBLE STANDARD. 1 Talent………933120 grains, equals: 60 Mina…….. @ 15552 grains, or: 3600 Shekel… @ 259.2 grains. EGYPTIAN CAPACITIES 1 Theban…..11664.00 cubic inches, equals: 10 Beshu…..1166.40 cubic inches, or 100 Honnu…116.64 cubic inches, or 400 Hon……29.16 cubic inches.

A progression based upon the 87.5-degree code goes: 87.5, 175, 262.5, 350, 437.5, 525, 612.5, 700, 787.5, ... 1050 ... 1312.5, ... 1575, ... etc. The progression is both lunar and navigational simultaneously and very useful in both categories. The values generated work perfectly according to the Great Pyramid's geodetic system for the equatorial circumference and in accordance with Greek, Hebrew, Roman or ancient Swedish measurement standards. At the end of the Sabbatical calendar count of days, which was 364-days X 7 (years) = 2548-days, there was a deficit error of 8.75-days to correct the calendar to 365.25 X 7 = 2556.75-days.

5. The distance is 756-feet and the angle remains 87.5-degrees.

The distance code is simply the length of the Great Pyramid or 1/8th of 1-minute of equatorial arc. This value is also 7.5-seconds of arc @ 100.8-feet for each second.

6. The distance is 590.625-feet and the angle is 88.59375-degrees.

This length is also the face diagonal length of the Khafre Pyramid, which was built according to the 3,4,5, triangle formula. The value is 2 X 295.3125-feet and there were 29.53125-days (29 & 17/32nds) in a lunar month. The formula used to build Khafre was 3 X 118.125-feet (354.375-feet) for the adjacent; 4 X 118.125 (472.5-feet) for the opposite; 5 X 118.125 (590.625-feet) for the hypotenuse. The increment of 118.125 (days) was 4 lunar months.

The angle value in this instance 88.59375-degrees (88 & 19/32nds), if read as days, would be 3 lunar months.

7. The distance is 110-feet and the angle is 89.1-degrees.

The distance is, of course, coding the "11" family of navigational numbers, which were represented by the league (16500-feet), mile (5280-feet), furlong or furrowlong (660-feet), chain (66-feet), rod or perch (16.5-feet), fathom (5.5-feet), link (7.92-inches).

The angle is also from the "11" family of navigational values. A mathematical progression based upon this value goes: 89.1, 178.2, 267.3, 356.4, 445.5, 534.6, 623.7, 712.8, 801.9, etc. The sum of 24750-miles X 360 = 8910000.

8. The distance is 132-feet and the angle is 142.56-degrees.

The value of 132-feet is 1/40th of a mile of 5280-feet and a mathematical progression based upon 132 is very useful in navigation. Under the 24750-mile equatorial circumference of the Earth the value if 132-feet would be 1/990000th.

The angle of 142.56-degrees (142 & 14/25ths) is an expression of the 89.1 navigational progression seen above. The sum of 142.56 = 8.91 X 16. The navigational progression, although complex, was very popular and values from this progression occur frequently at Nazca.

9. The distance is 356.4-feet and the angle remains 142.56-degrees.

10. The distance is 105-feet (1 Hebrew Reed) and the angle is 89.1-degrees.

11. The distance is 192-feet and the angle is 142.56-degrees.

The value of 192 sets up a very important mathematical progression related to the 24883.2-mile equatorial circumference (Greek miles or British miles). Many values from this progression are incorporated into the coded dimensions of the Great Pyramid (Egypt), Stonehenge or Silbury Hill (Southern England) etc.

12. The distance is 141.75-feet and the angle is 162-degrees.

The distance code is lunar and 1/2 of the circuit perimeter of the Khafre Pyramid (2835-feet) would be 1417.5-feet. The sum of 1417.5-days would be 48 lunar months.

The angle code, in this instance, identifies "rounded" PHI @ 1.62. The true value of PHI being 1.6180339. The use of a rounded form of PHI incorporated into ancient dimensions meant that structures or even cycles could be read symbolically in pure PHI values. For example, the Great Pyramid @ 756-feet of length was 466.666666 (466 & 2/3rds) PHI feet of 1.62 British feet (19.44-inches... a dynamic navigational value). Alternatively, the lunar period measured within the Sabbatical Calendar system was 2551.5-days (7.2 lunar years) or 1575 periods of 1.62-days. It will be recalled that the Greek stadia measurement was 630-feet or 4 X 157.5-feet.

13. The distance is 738.28125 (738 & 9/32nds) and the angle remains 142.56-degrees.

The sum of 738.28125-days would be 25 lunar months. The overall length incorporating line 13 & line 9, with the avenue dividing them appears to have included the code of 1134-feet overall from a station on the southern end to the extreme corner on the northern end. The 1134 value is lunar also. A 1/800th of the length of the Great Pyramid would be 11.34-inches and 1.5 circuits of the Great Pyramid would be 1134-feet. A 1/750th of the Khafre Pyramid' length would be 11.34-inches. The width of the "Station Stones" rectangle at Stonehenge was 113.4-feet.

14. The distance is 729-feet and the angle remains 142.56-degrees.

The distance is dual coded to be lunar and navigational. As stated the Romans had two renditions of their "foot" and one was lunar (11.664) which value was also used in the formation of the Egyptian Theban volume (11664-cubic inches). Whereas 5 such Roman feet produced a "Pace" of 58.32-inches, 1/8th of the "Pace" was 7.29-inches (the same length as the Bush Barrow Lozenge artefact from Stonehenge). The length of 729-feet at Nazca would, therefore, be 750 Roman lunar feet or 150 Paces and by elongating this measurement by 2-inches it would equate to 150 overland Roman Paces. There would be 35 periods of 72.9-days in the 2551.5-days monitored in the lunisolar Sabbatical Calendar. Under the Roman equatorial circumference calibration of 131250000 British feet or 25000 Greek miles or 27000 Roman miles, there would be 180000 increments of this Nazca distance.

15. The distance is 225-feet and the angle is 340.2-degrees.

It will be mentioned here that the configuration we are dealing with now is quite faint in Google Earth, but considerably clearer in Tony Morrison's photo from The Mystery of the Nasca Lines, 1987. That photograph has been included within this article.

The distance value codes a value that was very important to the 360-degree circuit of the compass, in which 22.5-degrees would be 1/16th.

The angle of 340.2-degrees relates to the duration of the lunar nutation cycle of 6804-days. There would be 20 periods of 340.2-days in the cycle. The Khafre Pyramid, with a perimeter circuit of 2835-feet was 34020-inches.

16. The distance is 220-feet and the angle remains 340.2-degrees.

The 220-feet distance would be 1/24th of a mile of 5280-feet.

17. The distance is 625-feet and the angle is 21-degrees.

The value of 625 sets up a mathematical progression that is very useful in navigation. It goes: 625, 1250, 1875, 2500, 3125, 3750, 4375, 5000, 5625, ... 6875, etc. Many dynamic values were produced from this progression, which were incorporated into such standards as ancient grain weights, for example, the British ounce today is 437.5-grains and it was derived from earlier Egyptian weights. Also, under the 24750-mile equatorial circumference, 1-degree of arc was 68.75-miles, etc.

18. The overall distance appears to be 630-feet and the angle is 21.6-degrees.

There a little smudging of the terrain at the southern sector of this line, but the overall distance appears to be 630-feet. This means that this distance at Nazca was 1/207360th of the equatorial circumference of the Earth under the Great Pyramid's literal assignment. It should be noted that one of the largest of the Egyptian Royal cubits was 20.736-inches or 1.728-feet. The length at Nazca would also be 600 Greek feet, 300 Assyrian cubits, 60 Hebrew Reeds, 360 Hebrew or Celtic cubits, 388.8 (strong navigational number) Swedish Alns, 432 Siloam Hebrew cubits, 450 old Hebrew cubits, 648 Roman feet, etc. The value of 6300-feet is well represented in the distribution of marked outer stations from the Octagon earth embankment geometric complex of Newark, Ohio, USA.

The degree angle @ 21.6 is highly important to a mathematical progression that relates to the cycle of Precession and navigation. It goes: 21.6, 43.2, 64.8, 86.4, 108, 129.6, 151.2, 172.8, 194.4, 216, 237.6, 259.2. The sun spends 2160-years in each House of the Zodiac during the cycle of Precession. All of the other numbers are well represented on sites across several continents and particularly in the degree angle orientations of the embankments at the Octagon of Newark, Ohio.

19. This line is 192-feet long at an angle of 345.6-degrees.

As stated in this section the 192 value is of tremendous importance for navigation.

The 345.6 value found in the degree angle is equally dynamic and the outer rim of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge was built to code 345.6-feet or 30 X 11.52-feet, whereas the inner rim was calibrated to 315-feet or half a Greek stadia ... long before there was a Greek civilisation. A mathematical progression based upon 34.56 delivers up very important navigational numbers.

20. We'll now deal with diagonal running lines marked 20 & 21. Line 20 refers to the upper or internal line. Although it's broken into 3 coded values, its overall value is 162 feet, again coding either PHI or "rounded" PHI. The angle is 79.2-degrees.

Another value within the overall length runs for 105-feet or 10-Reeds. A third code in the length appears to be 156.25-feet, which is a strong navigational value.

The angle in this instance, 79.2-degrees is at the basis of a very important mathematical progression that relates to navigation by the mile of 5280-feet and other associated increments of the "11" family of numbers. The Earth is literally 7920-miles in diameter. Various renditions of PI converted this diameter to a suitable equatorial circumference, depending on the navigational method being employed. For example: 7920 X 3.141818182 = 24883.2; 7920 X 3.125 = 24750; etc. The values occurring in some Nazca degree angles seem to infer another equatorial circumference of 7920 X 3.15 = 24948. If this proves to be so, then the calibration is in excess of the Earth's true circumference by only 45-miles.

21. The distance is 176-feet and the angle remains 79.2-degrees.

The length of 176-feet is 1/30th of a mile. This length would also have carried a tutorial on the merits of the number 175 or 16.66666 (16 & 2/3rds) Hebrew Reeds.

22. The distance is 186.624 and the angle is 171.875-degrees.

The distance is a part of a progression that relates to the Great Pyramid's geodetic system, which viewed the Earth to be 24883.2-Greek miles in circumference or 130636800-feet of which 186.624-feet would be 1/700000th. A progression based upon 186.624 produces values like 93312 and there were 933120-grains in the Royal Double Talent of the Sumerian-Babylonians. Ancient civilsations were using all of the Nazca values in their everyday volume and weight transactions in the marketplace, as well as in navigation at sea or counts of days within the calendar cycles. Ancient European civilisation was founded on these numbers.

The angle in this instance is 171.875-degrees (171 & 7/8ths). This value is navigational and relates to the symbolic reading of the Great Pyramid as 756.25-feet per side or 3-inches longer than the literal reading. This equates to a circumference of 24750-miles. There would be 144 increments of 171.875-miles in 24750-miles. Likewise, under the 24750-mile equatorial calibration, 1-degree of arc was 68.75-miles and 17.1875-miles = 1/4th of 1-degree of arc.

The reader has to remember that navigation at sea was dangerous and the navigators had to be exceptionally well trained mathematicians and astronomers. Nazca provided grueling and exhaustingly comprehensive tutorials, as did Avebury Henge in Southern England, where all of the same distances and angles are represented, both inside the Henge and extending out across the surrounding English countryside.

23. We now deal with lines 23 & 24 of which line 23 is internal and line 24 external. Line 23 is 182.625 feet and the angle is 168-degrees.

The value 182.625 (182 & 5/8ths) is a calendar value that relates to the solar year. The number of days between equinoxes is 182.625. Twice 182.625-days is 365.25 or the duration of the solar year. The ancient people erected simple solar observatories in any location they settled and even small groups had their own means of taking a solar fix to accurately determine the date of the vernal or autumn equinoxes or the summer and winter solstices. The method was simple and could be applied to virtually any location, be it coastal or high in rugged mountain terrain.

If there had been a calamity or some disruptive activity that caused a group or a whole civilisation to temporarily lose grasp of their calendar count of days, the whole system could be restored by careful observation. If one was located on the coast at sea level he could go down to the beach to the level of the lapping tide and periodically observe the sunrise. When he saw the furthermost point of travel of the sun southwards and northwards during the year, these points represented the midpoints of summer and winter. For the Northern Hemisphere the furthermost reach of the sunrise northwards represents mid-summer and the furthermost reach of the rising sun on the horizon southwards represents mid-winter. For the Southern Hemisphere the seasons are the opposite to this. In sub-tropical regions like New Zealand the range of travel of the sun up and down the horizon during the year will be about 60-degrees. In areas of Europe the range will be more like 80-degrees and the oscillation increases the further one moves from the equator towards the north or south.

The mid-point of this oscillation between solstices is the point of equinox or, at sea level, 90-degrees azimuth for the sunrise (where first glint of the sun occurs on the sea horizon) or last glint of the setting sun, which occurs at 270-degrees azimuth). By observation for a season or two and by setting up sighting posts, the dates of equinoxes or solstices can be determined with absolute precision. Once an equinox date is known, the observer can move inland to any location, even into high mountainous country and set up an accurate solar observatory, or several that fix onto equinox rises and sets or summer and winter solstice rises and sets.

What one does is study the available exploitable features in the distant terrain of the far off horizon. It might be observed that there's a nice mountain or pimple on a range or bowl dip out there to the East or West. By carefully positioning a marker stone to stand by "just over here" or "just over there", the sun can be made to rise in the dip, on the pimple or to slide up the side of the mountain to launch itself into the sky from the mountain peak on the equinox or on one of the two solstice days occurring during the calendar year. Across New Zealand, at the base of the South Pacific, there are hundreds and probably thousands of these simple solar observatories. Across Peru there would, likewise, be thousands of these observatories. So, it's 182.625 days between the summer solstice to the winter solstice or 182.625-days between the autumn equinox to the vernal (spring) equinox.