The more sophisticated standing stone circle sites were set out in PHI expansions of circles and squares, with a circle being a 1/2 PHI increase on the square that it overlaid. The circles within a site reduced by PHI from the diameter of the most outward circle. The squares did the same, reducing by PHI from the largest outer square. Also included were a series of star and cross patterns, with the stars offering a geometric means of aligning onto significant azimuth positions.

We'll now reconstruct some of the PHI elements within the Octagon's geometry and show that it was based upon the same numerical progression as found at Stonehenge, albeit in enlarged ratio.
It's fair to say that there will yet prove to be many stations around the site working to PHI and passionate researchers are encouraged to seek them out.

Figure 88: Three of the PHI reducing circles locatable in the geometry of Stonehenge are identifiable in the geometry of the Octagon of Newark, albeit that the Octagon's PHI circles are twenty times larger than Stonehenge's.

Figure 89: Under the ancient system of using PHI, a circle reducing by PHI would overlay a square, the diameter of which would be 1/2 PHI less than the diameter of the overlaying circle. In the above picture the square skims the crest position of the embankment circle and its 90-degree return intersects with its overlaying circle at the right corner of the Avenue...leading out of the circle embankment toward the Octagon. This intersecting position coincides nicely with a line running from the horseshoe hub, which dissects the corner.

Figure 90: The intersecting position, falling accurately onto the Avenue corner. This position is based upon 2 PHI reductions on 2880 feet, which is the length from the altar to the outside line of the NE gateway...then a 1/2 PHI reduction of this twice PHI reduced circle to create its overlaying square. The yellow line represents a vector running from the horseshoe hub. This kind of mathematical perfection doesn't happen by chance, only by design.

Figure 91: This circle is 5 PHI reductions on 2880 feet (the distance from the altar station to the NE gateway exterior). For teaching purposes and mnemonic reference, a pillar peninsula (upper picture) was built into the embankment to code this PHI relationship through the site.
This coding of the most used PHI sequence (based on 288) would have been of tremendous importance and the existence of the embankment pillar was sufficient to calculating each stage of PHI expansion.

It's probable that other stations (post or stone positions) would once have existed throughout the Octagon site to code the specialised 288 PHI reduction that exists from Egypt to Britain...and also found in New Zealand.

Figure 92: The PHI formula that built most of Stonehenge's major circles. This formula is encoded into the circle embankment at the Octagon, where the distance from the altar station to the embankment peninsula was 259.68951 feet. By clearly marking this value, all expanded values of circles and squares could be easily increased by PHI (1.6180339) and 1/2 PHI (.80901695).

The distance of 2880 feet from the altar station to the exterior line of the NE gateway represented 1/45360th of the size of the Earth under the sexagesimal geodetic system. It also represented 1/45375th of the size of the Earth under the "11" series (league) system and 1/45304.9492nd of the size of the Earth under the pure PHI reading. This coding further substantiates the tremendous importance of the Great Pyramid NEVER HAVING A POINTED APEX, as to do so would be to lose the codes related to the size of the Earth. The flat top altar, residing at a height of 453.049492 feet is, undoubtedly, its most important coded feature.


There are a series of star and cross patterns that have, traditionally, been used by many scattered civilisations down to the present day, which represent their most significant cultural symbols.
Several of these are preserved amongst the "secret societies", who have long since forgotten or lost touch with the origins of the symbols, but religiously cleave to a tradition of preserving them as something sacred from past, enlightened ages.

The patterns are found amongst the American Indian peoples of North America or Polynesian peoples of the South Pacific, as elsewhere.
Universally, with all such groups, origins related to the symbols remain elusive and knowledge of meaning, at best, fragmented.

Here are the main symbols, which nations emblazoned upon their banners since time immemorial.

Figure 93: This maze of geometry, composed of 9 major star, cross, rectangle, square & circle or PHI series symbols would have been included in the coding of the Octagon and featured as an important tutorial to initiates of the astronomical arts.

Because these symbols were at the heart of profound knowledge held in reverence by so-called Pagan nations, they were banned and systematically eradicated in Roman Christian spheres of influence. Such geometry was maliciously misrepresented as an evil tool of witchcraft and violently derided, by the church, into obscurity, to the extent that memory of its function was lost to humankind.

Let's strip away the maze and look at the geometric patterns one by one.

Figure 94: The 8-pointed star, swung 6.48-degrees off North to comply with the geometric method incorporated into the Octagon by it's design architects. The 3 circles shown are PHI related, with the most outward having a radius of 708.75 feet (the length of the Khafre Pyramid...Egypt's pyramid of the moon). The two inner circles are sequential PHI reductions on 708.75 feet. Remember, half of 708.75 is 345.375 and, in days, this value equates to the lunar year.

Figure 95: The Grand Cross symbol, which was the 2nd item to be added to the developing geometry under the ancient system of pattern layering. It is here shown orientating onto the primary points of the compass. The strange, small inner mound adjacent to the west gateway acts as a station for this cross pattern and a yet thinner one.

Figure 96: The Grand Cross rotated 6.48-degrees clockwise to comply with the Octagon's azimuth orientation. Intersections on the 8-pointed Star of Isis provide the template upon which the Grand Cross was fashioned geometrically.

Figure 97: Another probable orientation of the Grand Cross, as used within the Octagon.

Figure 98: The six-pointed star was the 3rd pattern to be introduced into the ancient layered geometry. King David adopted it as the national emblem of Israel, but prior to that time it was known as the star of RA the Sun God. This is because at moderate latitudes of the Earth the sun will rise at about 60-degrees at the time of the winter solstice and set at about 300-degrees. At the summer solstice it will rise at 120-degrees and set at 240-degrees.

Generally 2 rays of the star are set to north and south, which puts the other rays at 60, 120, 240 & 300-degrees respectively.
This remarkable and very useful pattern was particularly vilified by Roman Christianity, who called it the dreaded hexagram... and relegated it to the realm of, "most evil of all Pagan symbols".

Figure 99: The 12-pointed star or Star of the Zodiac. This pattern was particularly useful, as the 12 zodiacal constellations are 30-degrees removed from each other around the ecliptic (the path that the sun and planets travel). Each ray of the 12-pointed star sits 30 degrees removed from an adjacent ray. Note how the small mound by the western gateway locks this star to a foundation position. Markers were used at Stonehenge to lock on to a single ray of each varied star or cross in a similar way.

Figure 100: The 12-pointed star added to the developing layers. Again, intersections on the 8-pointed star lock the 12-pointed star into position

Figure 101: The thin Cross of Set, which would have ray points 6-degrees each side of the primary points of the compass in normal (N, S, E, W) orientation. This cross, in conjunction with the Grand Cross and another pattern within the layered geometry, went on to be adopted as symbols incorporated into the Union Jack flag of Southern England. Note how the mound adjacent to the western gateway was modified to relate to vectors of this cross, to lock it into position.

Figure 102: This is a very important picture inasmuch as it demonstrates how the ancient astronomer/ mathematicians were finding PHI relationships between circles and squares geometrically. With all orientations correctly onto north, a series of vectors are sent out from the centre hub position to touch the outer circle. The azimuth angles of the vectors are 36, 54, 126, 144, 216, 234, 306 & 324-degrees respectively.

If a square is then formed, based upon where the vectors touch the circle, then the square's diameter will be 1/2 PHI less than the diameter of the circle.
The importance of this PHI circle and PHI square relationship, each reducing by PHI within a site, cannot be overstated. This mathematical methodology was incorporated into observatories on several continents.

Figure 103: The 3 patterns from the ancient layered star & cross patterns that went on to be incorporated into the Union Jack flag of Southern England (the region of Stonehenge)...the Grand Cross, the Cross of Set and the PHI vectors, which became the St. Andrew's Cross.

Figure 104: The 2 overlaying rectangles, created as a result of the PHI vectors, became known as the Holy Rectangles and were adopted by many secret societies, attempting to preserve the old knowledge. These are shown on their true north orientation but, within the Octagon were rotated clockwise 6.48-degrees. The Holy rectangles were very important to the geometric template upon which Stonehenge was built.

Figure 105: Not wishing to confuse the issue, it must be pointed out that all of the star & cross patterns were used also at this expanded ratio. In the first instance of demonstrating the layered pattern geometry, the Khafre Pyramid length dimension (708.75 feet) was used as the radius to the outer defining circle (red). The Khafre Pyramid was 15/16ths the size of the Great Pyramid (756 feet). In the above picture all pattern layers have been expanded 1.06666666 to comply with the Great Pyramid's dimensions in the radius of the largest red circle.

Note how a green outer circle, touching the corners of the PHI square (green), now runs to gateway exterior positions.

The reader will be asking, what's the point of all of this layered geometry?
The answer lies in the fact that the patterns provided azimuth angles that were used in ancient astronomy, as well as coded numbers related to measurement increments or the sizes of objects like the moon. By learning the layered pattern system, one had the essential knowledge to set up standing stone circle observatories anywhere in the world, that would act as accurate calculators.

The final result of this layered patterning was the creation of a 64-square matrix, used for calculating azimuth angles. This became the original Holy of Holies concept and our modern day chessboards are derived from it.

Figure 106: The 64-square matrix, borne out of the layered star and cross patterns. All diagonal vectors of stars have been removed, except some outer rays of the 12-pointed Star of Gilgal. The matrix is shown on N, S, E, W orientation and would have been swung 6.48-degrees clockwise within the Octagon.

The central matrix pattern later developed into "Tartans" or "Plaids", worn by Indo-European peoples for thousands of years and recently found on the 5000-year old Caucasian mummies of Urumchi in China. It also became the "chessboard", still being used in Egypt when the Knights Templar introduced the game to Europe and popularised it there.
The matrix, as shown, is still incomplete as a static computer and needs 36 chevrons in the outer perimeter of squares in order to be fully functional. The central square matrix is in a PHI relationship with the circle that overlays it.

Figure 107: The Holy of Holies "chessboard" moved to the Octagon's circle embankment and sitting at its correct orientation onto N, S, E & W. The calculation matrix is now complete, with the inclusion of the 36 chevrons in the outer perimeter of squares. There would have been 72 circumnavigating, overlapping circles on the PHI circle that runs through the corners of the Holy of Holies square and their overlapping points of intersection would have represented 5-degrees of azimuth arc increase.

This traditional matrix, marked into astronomical sites from Continental Europe (Rennes le Chateau, France) to New Zealand in the South Pacific, was, most assuredly, fully or partially marked into the geometry of the Octagon. Two anchor pillars within the Octagon's circle embankment lock this geometric configuration into position.

This star, cross, square, rectangle & PHI circle methodology was at the heart of the knowledge handed on to ensuing generations. The method, once learned, became the foundation upon which additional layers of astronomical/ navigational knowledge was built. From this base method alone, astronomical principles, if ever forgotten, could be retrieved.

Let's look at anchor points or pillars used for locking this matrix to the circle embankment:

Figure 108: The pillar arrangement to the right of the above picture was obviously used as a benchmark position for the 12-pointed star associated, traditionally, with the chessboard matrix. At the Octagon, raised sections atop the embankments designated crossing positions on their nose sections and this appears to be what was happening to the left in the above picture.

Figure 109: The jutting pillar offers another positive benchmark for the 12-pointed star geometry and an edge or tier of the altar appears to do the same.

The chessboard may not have been permanently marked into the site, but the site geometry had to be such that ropes, running to, at least, semi-permanent markers, could create the chessboard calculation matrix at will, as it was integral to the ancient knowledge.

Based upon symbols found from Egypt to the Pacific Northwest of the US & Canada, as well as New Zealand, it's probable that the chessboard was a permanently marked geometric feature of the Octagon's circle.

Figure 110: These figurines were used amongst the Moriori people of New Zealand's Chatham Island group. A very similar figurine to some Moriori examples was used by the Chehalis (Coast Salish) Indians of the Pacific Northwest, whose territory is between Seattle WA to Alaska and inland, up the Fraser River. Such a motif was seen and photographed by New Zealand researcher, Gary Cook, while visiting with the Chehalis in recent times.

These varied but similar figurines were derived from the chessboard geometry and are also found upon the Egyptian hypocephalus funerary amulet, where they depict the Sun God, Ammon-RA.

Figure 111: Many features found within the corner geometry of the chessboard matrix were later metamorphasised into the hypocephalus funerary amulet depiction of Ammon-RA the Sun God (left), then spread abroad across the world.

The fullness of the hypocephalus top and centre panels is a clear portrayal of the precession of the equinoxes and the age-old method for calculating the sun's position within the precessional cycle.

The thicker blue lines represent the staffs balancing on the knees of Ammon-RA. The crossing lines of the chessboard (green) become the X between Ammon-RA's legs.
The thinner blue lines rising to a point then returning on another vector represent the plumes of the feathered headdress found on Egyptian statuettes of Ammon-RA. On these Egyptian statuettes the tall angled plumes turn, similarly, to another diagonal and droop, in the same geometric configuration, toward the feet.


If one wished to profoundly study Buddhism they wouldn't go to a mosque of Mohammed. By the same token, if one wished to understand the ancient, sun aligned religions, which guided the vast majority of great civilisations for millennia, they wouldn't consult with devout Christians, especially those whose pedigree of belief came via Roman sources.

If we are ever to truly understand what so-called Pagan beliefs were, then we must sweep aside centuries of accumulated, prejudiced, fear-based rubbish.

It is correctly said that, 'history is written by the winners', and benign Paganism had little hope of survival in regions of ruthless Christianisation It now has no voice to plead its defence or innocence.

The many facets of pre-Christian, European, nature worship belief systems, continue to be misrepresented as incredibly horrific and ghastly "devil worship", by Christians believing their own propaganda ...something that these very old, mathematically based religions never were or came close to being.

Under a generalised umbrella of definition, European Paganism was high science, tailored in a very practical way to create order and harmony by sound decision-making. It was a means to optimise daily life for one and all, to achieve the best prospects for happiness through abundance.

Universally around the globe, the sun represented the vicarious symbol of the highest spiritual Deity. Late era Druidic Priests, working within caer sites of England, were not permitted to hold solemn ceremonies without the sun overhead. Newlywed couples took a turn sun-wise during the marriage ceremony, ships venturing out to sea first went sun-wise and at funerals the deceased was borne sun-wise to the place of burial.

The Octagon of Newark, Ohio was an open-air temple/ astronomical calculator, dedicated to Ammon-RA of Egypt. Let's consider the means whereby the architects have encrypted this intention:

Figure 112: The altar of the Octagon was deliberately configured to include features paralleling traditional design characteristics of the head and crown of Ammon-RA.

With the geometry swung 6.48-degrees to relate to the precession of the equinoxes code, the neck of the geometric figure falls within the forward alcove station and exactly onto the Great Pyramid circuit line. The side-to-side aspect of the altar represents the 4-rams heads and the horns of the altar represent the birds perched on feathers of Ammon-RA's plumed crown.

Many compelling geometric relationships, combined with clear, inbuilt physical features, further supported by traditional hypocephalus depictions of Ammon-RA, attest to the presence of the Sun God in the design configuration of the altar.


About 5000 years ago an enlightened people, with an ethnic pedigree linking them to Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, undertook to build large, code bearing structures throughout 4-square miles of terrain in central Ohio.

Like so many other great civilisations, they had their day in the sun then disappeared forever into the night.
What they built was intended to withstand the ravages of time and eternally guard, what was considered to be, sacred knowledge, religiously handed down from distant forebears.

The ancient Masters of the Craft could scarcely have envisioned present-day circumstances, where our brightest scholars are unable to extract the simple, clearly laid out codes, conspicuously displayed within the old sites. This is particularly mystifying when modern scholars have in their possession the selfsame measurement standard that was used to build the multitude of ancient structures in the first place.

Most people are unaware of the fact that the "Dark Ages" are still upon us and were not eclipsed or dispelled, only moderated, by the Renaissance.

Scholarship continues to be heavily manipulated and subject to constraints, to the extent that many of our educated elite are not permitted to bring to light certain truths that they are privy to.

The task of extracting the truth, therefore, falls to reasonable and rational amateur researchers, who don't have to concern themselves with peer reviews, in house politics or perceived racial sensitivity issues that blockade the route to valid research and the scientific approach.

Hopefully, this analysis will go some way toward alerting American researchers of just how significant the treasure trove of mound structures in their backyard truly is... and lend impetus to the rapid decipherment of many dynamic sites scattered across the length and breadth of North America. The forgoing analysis of the Octagon does not identify all that was happening within the site and this researcher yet knows of more PHI related or coded distance stations, etc.

It is within the mathematical knowledge capacity of grade school and high school students to extract the codes, or trades people to survey the sites and subject the coordinates to AutoCAD analysis for correct interpretation.

What highly paid academics will not do for us, we must do for ourselves without their participation. They shall, sadly enough, remain a part of the problem...not become a part of the solution, until forced to do so by a population that demands valid scholarship.

The methods of decipherment applied herein to the Octagon are equally applicable to High Bank Mound, the Cahokian Mound and any other reasonably intact structures found within North America, including the 80 known Medicine Wheels.

It is the hope of this researcher that the horseshoe appendage structure to the greater Octagon can once again be pressed into service as a centre of learning, to teach initiates, young and old, precious ancient truths preserved through aeons of time by the age-old Masters of the Craft.


Martin Doutré, June 2001.
Auckland, New Zealand ©

British Standard spelling.