We have already seen that the hub position of the small horseshoe embankment is tied by exacting geometry to the two main hub positions of the greater Octagon site, but that's only the beginning... Let's now identify how the horseshoe further preserves a raft of ancient codes by virtue of its position. We'll start off with some easy ones and then introduce more complex codes later.

Figure 46: The blue line originates at the hub position of the small horseshoe embankment and extends for 1980 feet to a very significant shelf at the forefront of the altar. The azimuth angle of this line is 256-degrees.

Figure 47: This distance from the horseshoe hub to the extreme outer position of the altar is of extreme importance, as in its inch count it divulges the exact circumference of the Earth under the sexagesimal navigational system. This distance is exactly 1200 Egyptian Royal Cubits of 20.61818182 inches each. Note how the vector tucks into the corner position adjacent to "horns" of the altar.

Let's move from the altar, having only partially demonstrated the latent codes residing there. Our purpose, for the moment, shall be to cover a wide selection of outpost stations, all over the site and show how they relate, in code, to the small horseshoe circle.

Figure 48: Around the circle embankment, the ancient architects created conspicuous positions that stood out very obviously as places of significance. In the above picture is a jutting hump peninsula that almost cries out for recognition. The blue line extending from the horseshoe hub to this hump is 2016 feet long and is on an azimuth angle of 262.5-degrees. Both the distance & angle codes being demonstrated are very dynamic.

Figure 49: Another obvious jutting hump built into the Octagon's circle. Both a circle & vector are sent out from the hub of the horseshoe circle and the circle tucks into the corner of the hump on both sides of the embankment. At the same time the vector points directly toward the nose of the hump. The circle has a radius of 1417.5 feet or a diameter of 2835 feet. The azimuth angle of the vector is 283.5-degrees and this is one of the foremost of the lunar codes.

Figure 50: Another extremely significant code, associated to the "hump", is shown by the circle rim 1440 feet out from the horseshoe hub. Note how the 1440 feet radius circle tucks into the opposite corner to the 1417.5 feet circle shown earlier. Again the azimuth angle is 283.5-degrees, in deference to the major lunar code and the perimeter of the Khafre Pyramid. Note how the 283.5-degree vector brushes the nose of the hump.

Figure 51: Another deliberate indentation marking of the circle embankment occurs at 1000 feet out, at an azimuth angle of 260 degrees, from the horseshoe hub. The merits of having a decimalised distance of 1000 feet are self- explanatory. The 260-degree azimuth coded Sabbatical calendar increments, as well as symbolically represented 259.20-degrees (precession).

Figure 52: An important coding of the corner position leading into the Avenue. This distance is 1134 feet radius from the hub of the small horseshoe circle or on a circle of 2268 feet diameter. Such a circle would be 3/4ths of the perimeter value of the Great Pyramid @ 756 feet per side. The number is also a very prominent lunar code, much accentuated at Stonehenge. The azimuth angle from the horseshoe hub to this position is exactly 280-degrees, an important value in both solar and lunar counts under the Sabbatical calendar or lunar nutation cycle systems.

Figure 53: There are a number of codes resident in this corner position, some of which are a little complex. This circle extends out from the horseshoe hub a radius distance of 1080 feet and the vector accompanying it is on an azimuth angle of 275-degrees. Note how the vector brushes the side edge of elevated ground south of the embankment corner, while the circle runs through a forward section of the lower corner.

Figure 54: The best representation of the exterior corner position resides at the seemingly strange azimuth angle of 277.777-degrees. At the same time 1080 feet distance from the horseshoe hub works effectively to designate the outer corner position. Also shown is a more inward circle sweeping to the inner line of the highest layer of the embankment. This second circle has a radius of 1056 feet, which is the same as the crest-to-crest distance across the Octagon's circle embankment (ref. James A. Marshall).

Figure 55: The circle edge, in this case, is 1050 feet (100 reeds) from the hub of the horseshoe. One of the coded circles used within the circle embankment of the Octagon was, assuredly, 1050 feet.
It's possible that the azimuth angle of 276.48-degrees was used to describe this inner corner position. The number has an association to a calibration used on the altar floor of the Great Pyramid, based upon a circle of 44 feet diameter, producing a circumference of 138.24 feet or 12 segments of 11.52 feet each. The increment of 276.48 inches would have been 1/6th of the altar's calibration circuit. The altar's circuit was designed to represent 1/945000th of the size of the Earth under the sexagesimal assignment and its important defining number 138.24 X 2 = 276.48.

Figure 56: The Avenue codes to the left hand side at the entry to the octagonal component of the greater site. The exterior position complies with a distance of 990 feet from the horseshoe hub, whereas 960 feet would describe a position on the rising interior corner. The azimuth angle of the vector shown is 293.3333-degrees.

Figure 57: The vector running to the right hand side of the Avenue is on a seemingly strange angle of 291.111-degrees from the horseshoe hub. The corner position is 900 feet removed. This important vector extends across the Avenue to the nose of the crest hump atop the embankment. The opposite running angle back to the horseshoe was 111.111-degrees and this angle provided a very important conversion ratio used for mnemonic recall of many ancient codes.

Figure 58: The "Alligator" Mound, a few miles west from Newark's earthworks. The picture shown, minus the added geometry, was drawn by James A Salisbury, circa 1862 and labelled by him as Panther Mound. The official length of the mound appears, plausibly, to be 210 feet (1/3rd of a Greek stadia of 630 feet).

Its centre line appears to lie on an angle of 111.111-degrees, from the centre head section down the line of the tail. This degree angle codes an important ratio in common usage amongst ancient astronomer/ mathematicians. Salisbury's drawing is considered to be the most accurate depiction of the Alligator Mound available.
More stringent checking will be required to establish the validity of this degree angle at Alligator Mound and either 110 or 112-degrees would also fall within the parcel of ancient coded values.

Figure 59: The blue circle shown extends out 1440 feet from the horseshoe hub on an azimuth angle of 308.5714286-degrees. This complicated degree angle is, very simply, an expression of dividing 360 degrees into increments of 7 and 308.5714286-degrees represents 6/7ths of 360-degrees. As strange as it might seem, ancient astronomer/ mathematicians often divided circumferences up into 7th increments, primarily for calendar calculations and had a very simple system for working with the cumbersome numbers generated.

Figure 60: This vector length, extending for 1466.666666 feet from the hub of the horseshoe was undoubtedly included in the coding, as it pertains to navigation under the "11" series system. We've already covered the merits of 293.333333 and 1/2 that value is 146.666666...relating to 880, 5280, 7920, etc.

Figure 61: The PI gateway, where coding in both the PI ratio and the Greek stadia measurement were accentuated simultaneously. The blue circle is 1570.8 feet from the hub of the horseshoe circle and this is indicative of 1/2 PI (1.5708). This means that the full diameter circle would be 3141.6 feet wide (PI is 3.1416).

Note how the blue circle relates with the centre nose of the left bank.
The yellow circle is 1575 feet from the horseshoe hub, for an overall circle diameter of 3150 feet (5 Greek stadia). Note how it interrelates with the centre nose of the bank to the right. Two vectors (one blue and one yellow) extend to this area. The blue one has an azimuth of 333.333333-degrees or a ratio of 1 to 1.08 of a circle of 360-degrees. The yellow one has an azimuth of 330-degrees and was probable marked out within the Octagon, inasmuch as it is so important to the "11" series geodetic system, as well as the furlong (660 feet and the chain (66 feet).

Figure 62: Very important codes reside in the northern gateway, which relate, primarily, to 3,4,5 triangulation, the league measurement or the size of the Earth under both the sexagesimal and "11" series geodetic systems.

Figure 63: This is a probable code, under the assumption that, "if this researcher can find it, then the ancient astronomers were probably aware of it". As we proceed, it will be demonstrated that an alignment of 38.88-degrees azimuth runs down the ESE embankment to the hub position of the horseshoe. The horseshoe position is, therefore anchored to 38.88 degrees, which is a part of a precessional progression, based upon 12.96-degree increases.

If we accept that 38.88-degrees represents a zero or beginning point, then the red vector shown above represents 314.16 degrees of increase (PI coding) on 38.88-degrees and sits at an azimuth of 353.04-degrees. Again, the red circle aspect codes 1650 feet and relates to the league.

Figure 64: A very vivid and easily identifiable code is displayed in the NE gateway. The vector runs out 1296 feet from the horseshoe hub and, thereby, codes precession. The diameter of this circle would equate to 2592 feet, with the number for precession set at 25920-years. The azimuth angle of this vector is 12.15-degrees. Note how it brushes the small mound en-route to its station.

Figure 65: The horseshoe hub anchored to the crest alignment of the ESE embankment, on an azimuth angle of 38.88-degrees. The vector extending from the hub of the horseshoe runs for 880 feet to the end of the ESE embankment, coding a very important increment in the "11" series geodetic system.

Figure 66: Another vividly simple set of codes running from the horseshoe hub to the left side of the southern gateway. The distance from the hub is 412.5 feet on an azimuth angle of 264-degrees. In both distance and angle the coding is navigational.

Figure 67: The ancient astronomers attempted to code their important numbers as clearly as they could and achieved an excellent result to the right side of the southern gateway. The distance from the hub to the nose of the embankment is 375 feet on an azimuth angle of 262.5 degrees. Incidentally, 375 is 1/7th of 2625. It's probable that this distance was dual coded to also give a reading of 378 feet (1/2 the base length of the Great Pyramid).

Figure 68: The Serpent Mound of Adam's County, Ohio where many "Octagon-type", universal codes are decipherable. The drawing depicted is based upon an AutoCAD reproduction of mound researcher, William Romain's 1987 survey.

The foregoing gives a cross section of codes found at stations across the Octagon site as they relate to the hub position of the small horseshoe embankment. The sampling shown is by no means complete and other stations, especially in the altar region, can yet be identified.

In some rare instances there had to be minor rounding of numbers to add a much sought after code.
For example, from the centre hub of the horseshoe to the centre hub of the Octagon was 850.5 feet (315 rounded MY and also symbolically coding PI) on an azimuth angle of 340.5-degrees.
Most assuredly, the number that the ancient astronomers wanted to achieve in this azimuth was 340.2 (1/2 the duration of the lunar cycle was 3402 days...Khafre Pyramid was 34020 inches in perimeter).
The constraints of exacting geometry, descending on a station from several outlying positions, sometimes disallowed perfection and, in this instance, the astronomers had to wear .3 of a degree of error in the code assignment. The close proximity angle, however, continued to provide excellent mnemonic reference to 3402.
We'll now turn our attention to secondary usages of the small horseshoe circle, which related to solar or lunar rises and navigation.


The small horseshoe circle displays all of the attributes of a training centre, where the fundamentals of how to work the greater site could be taught to apprentices.
From that position, the coded distances and angles to all other stations around the site could be commented upon, with the significance of the numbers, as well as their applications, fully explained.
The small horseshoe appears to be multifunctional in its potential applications, where subtle reinterpretation of its anchor alignment to the ESE embankment would allow for introducing added tutorials. We'll cover that aspect as we proceed.

Figure 69: The blue line extending through the full site represents a sighting line for viewing the moonrise at major standstill. This is where the moon moves to its most northerly position within the 18.613-year lunar nutation cycle. The viewable horizon line, which was 30 minutes of arc (1/2 a degree) higher than the level of the Octagon and 3.6 miles distant, meant that the moon rose within the 51.84-degree corridor, when the observer was situated atop the altar.

Of course, very accurate fixes for the lunar positions could be taken from the huge, main complex and any lunar determinations made from the horseshoe were for training purposes only. As we proceed, it will be demonstrated that the horseshoe circle is merely a 1/10th ratio expression of the octagonal component that it sits adjacent to and that the mathematical formulas of the larger structure are inherent within the smaller.

Figure 70: Both the yellow and blue lines are at known degree angles, which helped the astronomer/ teachers correctly calculate other degree angles. The 5 red lines give the significant, albeit approximate, sunrise positions throughout the year, as observable from the centre of the horseshoe.


Masters of the craft, teaching initiates how to read and work the greater Octagon site, needed an "Octagon in miniature" from which to demonstrate principles of astronomy and navigation.
Despite its meagre proportions, the horseshoe is quite complex mathematically, to the extent that some of its attributes will go unmentioned in this preliminary article.

Figure 71: A case of déja vue...the principles that led to the building of the octagonal & circular embankments of the greater Octagon complex are being repeated in miniature.

Let's now add in the 1/2 PHI expanded squares, as found within the greater Octagon.

Figure 72: The 1st of the 1/2 PHI expansions produces a square with a radius of 58.40421514 feet. Note how it relates to large sections of the horseshoe, especially in the eastern quadrant. The circle that encases this square has been marginally reduced in size to 82.5 feet radius, and an error of 1.152 inches shortfall exists between the rim of the circle and the corner of the square. The 82.5 feet radius is 1/2 of 165 feet (diameter), which codes the league measurement of 16500 feet or the rod/ perch measurement, which was 16.5 feet.

We'll now complete the initial series with the introduction of the final 1/2 PHI expanded square.

Figure 73: The final 1/2 PHI expanded square, for this preliminary series, is introduced. Note how it extends to the outer limit of the left portal of the entryway. Note also how the circle that encases it extends to the adjacent Octagon embankment and how the Octagon's architects designed in a feature of additional outreaching earthworks to accommodate this sweep.

Figure 74: Whereas the circle brushing the 72.19158405 feet (two 1/2 PHI expansions on 47.25 feet) square's corners extends to a main embankment, the blue circle contained by the square was more important. It will be recalled that the main degree angle calibration circle for the Octagon was 4536 feet in circumference, working in conjunction with a double rendition of that circle @ 9072 feet. The blue circle shown has a circumference of 453.6 feet (literally 453.5941609 feet ...453.6).

Let's return momentarily to the PHI circles and squares before demonstrating the horseshoe's stellar degree angle fixing method, as taught by the Masters of the Craft.

Figure 75: A final square and circle, 1/2 PHI expanded over the preceding ones, extend onto a main embankment. Relationships are readily seen in the way that the new circle and square identify stations of the horseshoe or adjacent embankment. We'll now rotate the squares onto the 66-degree line extending out of the entryway to see further relationships.

Figure 76: The foregoing is, in part, the design concept incorporated by the architects to shape the horseshoe embankment circle... however, there's still a lot left in this compact, code concentrated area to identify.