In the high, remote desert country, some 54 miles east of Phoenix, Arizona
there is an enigmatic, ancient circle wall structure that could be described
as an **Indian Medicine Wheel.**

The structure is impressive, with a 3 feet thick, reasonably high wall running
continuously in an almost perfect circle for about 430-440 feet (OD), interrupted
only by entry gateways. Like sites in Great Britain, there is a slight elliptical
shaping to the overall circle in the dimensions north-south as opposed to east-west.
This has the effect of providing an additional, 90-degrees opposed diameter,
which "doubles-up" the linear and circumference codes encrypted into
the site.

There is a flat section of wall over toward the east that appears to run for
about 44 feet before reverting to a curve. The site has two clear "spoke"
walls running out from the centre to the outer wall, as well as 4 "faint"
spokes, which are now somewhat more difficult to detect.

The Circlestone structure sits at an elevation of 6010 feet above sea level and, apart from nearby Mound Mountain (6266 feet) situated at an azimuth angle of 217-degrees from Circlestones, is one of the highest points of the region.

**'Whoever built Circlestone commanded a view difficult to duplicate in this
region. Mountain ranges seventy-five miles away are visible. To the west, Superstition
Mountain and Weavers needle can be seen. To the East are the Sierra Anchas,
and to the north Four Peaks and the Mogollon Rim dominate the horizon. To the
south is Mound Mountain and the central valley of Arizona' (Circlestone, A Superstition
Mountain Mystery, by James A. Swanson and Thomas J Kollenborn).**

It is very evident that the so-called British Standard of measurement is of
remote antiquity and is not of British origin, but stems from ancient Egypt,
Babylonia and Sumeria. It is still true to its original length after untold
millennia and was most certainly the standard used in the construction of the
Circlestone Observatory.

Check the many articles of this website for supportive evidence related to the
antiquity of the Egyptian/ Babylonian/ Sumerian/ British Standard of Measurement...with
affiliated measures used amongst the Greeks, Hebrews & Romans, etc.

**WHY WAS CIRCLESTONE BUILT?**

The Circlestone structure is but one of several similar, circular stonewall
sites that survive in the region. Another impressive structure of this type
nearby is Casa Malpais. See: **http://www.delange.org/CasaMalpais1/CasaMalpais.htm**

**Figure 1: The Casa Malpais circle wall observatory, which orientates
perfectly to solar positions through gateway alignments. There were once many
such structures throughout the region, which shows us that ancient inhabitants
of Arizona were very preoccupied with astronomy.**

**Figure 2: The Circlestone observatory, as measured by Tom Kollenborn and
his colleagues. This picture comes from, Circlestone, A Superstition Mountain
Mystery, by James A. Swanson and Thomas J Kollenborn.
In the above picture a small amount of error was detected in the drawing in
consideration of the measurement panel to the right, when it was taken into
AutoCAD for analysis. It's possible that the drawing was based directly on a
topographical photo and there was a slight amount of lens distortion in the
photo. The problem was easily rectified in AutoCAD and drawings used throughout
this study are corrected and scaled to Tom Kollenborn's recorded dimensions**.

The long sweeping curve of the laboriously built Circlestone
outer wall is shown in this picture. When one considers how remote this high
desert circle observatory is situated away from resources more conducive to
rational, large population settlement, the mystery of Circlestone's creation
becomes yet more intriguing. Why was it built in such a remote location?

There are a few features within the site that this researcher lacks information on. It is mentioned, for example, that there are 6 outrunning "spoke" walls detectable, although 4 of them are so faint that their positions and orientations have gone unrecorded. This study, therefore, will be limited to an analysis of the 2 spokes that are positively recorded.

Although there is only 1 gateway shown on the site plan there appears to be reference to at least one more. The orientation and position of each gateway will be of great importance, but this study will be limited to the single gateway shown.

On the outer wall there is at least 1 position where the structure is higher and forms into a pillar or prominent feature. This position should contain a dynamic code in its degree angle or provide a significant orientation onto an annual celestial event.

The higher structure can be faintly seen in the top right hand side of the photograph and possibly represented a stellar landing platform for making calculations related to the Precession of the Equinoxes.

There are a few features within the site that this researcher lacks information on. It is mentioned, for example, that there are 6 outrunning "spoke" walls detectable, although 4 of them are so faint that their positions and orientations have gone unrecorded. This study, therefore, will be limited to an analysis of the 2 spokes that are positively recorded.

Although there is only 1 gateway shown on the site plan there appears to be reference to at least one more. The orientation and position of each gateway will be of great importance, but this study will be limited to the single gateway shown.

On the outer wall there is at least 1 position where the structure is higher and forms into a pillar or prominent feature. This position should contain a dynamic code in its degree angle or provide a significant orientation onto an annual celestial event.

The higher structure can be faintly seen in the top right hand side of the photograph and possibly represented a stellar landing platform for making calculations related to the Precession of the Equinoxes.

**Figure 3: Another important marked point of the wall that probably relates
to something happening annually on the distant horizon. The positions of any
prominent features such as this need to be positively recorded and marked into
the site plan.**

**THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CIRCLESTONE'S DIMENSIONS & ORIENTATIONS.**

This must remain a preliminary study, based upon what is positively recorded about the site's known attributes. As more complete information becomes available, gaps within this analysis can be filled. Let's begin by introducing a site plan that is scaled to the dimensions given by Thomas J Kollenborn.

**Figure 4: Tom Kollenborn gives us the following distances between marked
positions of his site plan. A to B = 132 feet, C to D = 136 feet, E to F = 130
feet, G to H = 17 feet, I to B = 68 feet, I to F = 62 feet, I to J = 68 feet,
K to B = 48 feet…so what is the significance of these dimensions?**

**A to B**= 132 feet…this is a very standard and common dimension used around the world on ancient sites and it seems obligatory that it would feature prominently at Circlestone. At Stonehenge the "station stones" rectangle measures 264 feet (navigational code) X 113.4 feet (lunar code). The 264 feet aspect (132 feet X 2) relates to navigation using the mile (5280 feet). The sum of 264 feet X 2 is 528 feet or 1/10th of a mile. The distance of 132 feet, running directly east-west at Circlestone, is exactly 1/40th of a mile. The Crosshouse at Miringa Te Kakara in New Zealand used the same code as a ratio reduced expression (52.8 feet) for the overall, straight-line extremity length of the building. The Druidic Calendar plaque known as The Calendar of Coligny incorporated the code also in an inner frame width (2.64 feet). The Menkaure Pyramid (356.4 feet) was intended to convey 132 Megalithic Yards of length according to its pure PHI or rounded PHI assignments. A pure PHI MY is 32.360678 inches and a "rounded PHI" MY is 32.4 inches. Whenever the 132, 264 or 528 numbers are encountered, they infer navigational coding. The width of the "Z" Holes post circle at Stonehenge was 132 feet.

**C to D**= 136 feet…this should literally be read as 136.08 feet…as it is Circlestone's standard, 90-degrees opposed, lunar coding. A common, surveying modus operandi is emerging in the layout of several sites studied worldwide, wherein a "264-based" navigational code within a site will sit 90-degrees opposed to a "6804-based" lunar code. In the case of Circlestone the 264 code runs east-west and the 6804 code runs north-south…the distance of 136.08 feet is 68.04 feet X 2. The distance of 136.08 feet, if read as days, would be 1/50th of the Lunar nutation cycle of 6804-days. To show how this surveying coding occurs on other sites across the world, let's consider the layouts of Stonehenge and the Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara in New Zealand.

- Structures all over the ancient world had PHI relationships built into them and Circlestone displays a near relationship. The PHI ratio was of extreme importance to ancient mathematicians and is prominently displayed from Egypt to New Zealand in Oceania. The north-south internal diameter of Circlestone was set to the lunar code of 136.08 feet. This produces a circumference of, essentially, 427.5 feet. The east west internal breadth of Circlestone was set to the navigational code of 132 feet. If this is multiplied by "double PHI" (3.2360678) then it produces the near number of 427.1609496 feet or a 4- inch shortfall on the 427.5 feet circumference produced by a 136.08 feet diameter.

**Figure 5: The Station Stones rectangle at Stonehenge was 264 feet long and
113.4 feet wide. It perfectly enclosed the Sarsen Circle in its width from 45-degrees
azimuth to 225-degrees azimuth (the Sarsen Circle was made slightly elliptical
to accentuate the 113.4-day lunar code…6804-days =113.4 X 60). Ninety degrees
opposed to the 264 feet long eastern side of the Station Stones rectangle the
sun rose on the day of the summer solstice…with "first glint"
to the north of the Heel Stone at 48.6- degrees.**

**Figure 6: A strange former Maori meeting-house, which had a
pedigree back to the mysterious Patu-paiarehe people … a civilization vanquished
by the Polynesian Maori. The pre-Maori people of New Zealand fitted the description
of Europeans and the ancient mathematics found within the coded structures of
New Zealand attest to a strong cultural link to Europe and the Mediterranean.
The Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara follows the identical surveying methodology
of Stonehenge & Circlestone in its foundation coding. The elongated red
rectangle running to the exterior of two wings of the building and defining
the overall length to the outer facing plates is 52.8 feet (26.4 feet X 2).
The width of the wings was intended to convey 17.01 feet (officially 17 feet),
which is 1/8th of the 136.08 feet north- south internal length of Circlestone.
It is also the exact length of (at least) the northwestern wall of Circlestone's
inner square structure. The 17.01 feet lengths occurring at both Circlestone
and Miringa Te Kakara's Crosshouse was for mnemonic reference to 1701-days…the
duration of ¼th of the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle. At the Octagon
of Newark, Ohio the largest defining square that could contain the octagonal
section of the earthworks was coded to convey 1701-feet in diameter… ¼th
of 6804 feet.**

Figure 7: A red square of 1701 feet diameter frames and contains the giant octagon
component of the Octagon Earthworks at Newark, Ohio, USA.

**Figure 8: The red line (east-west) is scaled to indicate 132
feet and the blue line (north-south) represents 136.08 feet. The expected elements
of a lunar code based upon 6804, running 90-degrees opposed to a navigational
code based upon 264/ 528 are positively present within the observatory's official
measurements.**

The encryption of these 2 very important codes will (where the
latitude allows) be accompanied by a 3rd code related to** 486 or 243.**
These numbers are, in turn related to 6804-days (the lunar nutation cycle) or
2551.5-days (the number of days in 7.2 lunar years, used in conjunction with
7 solar years (2556.75-days) under the Sabbatical Calendar system…see The
Calendar of Coligny article within this website for a full explanation).

- At Stonehenge a line running from the centre of the site NE, 90-degrees
opposed to the 264 feet long "Station stones" line, will resolve
upon
**48.6-degrees azimuth**. This line should hit upon a "first glint" position of the rising sun at the time of the summer solstice.

- At the Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara in New Zealand the winter solstice
rise point was at 60-degrees azimuth, which again was 90-degrees opposed to
the "station" markers for the building. The "60" aspect
of this rise position is related to 6804-days of the lunar nutation cycle
and 60-days represents 1/113.4th of 6804-days. The width of the "Station
stones" rectangle at Stonehenge was
**113.4 feet,**which is half of 226.8 feet (3-sides of the Great Pyramid totalled 2268 feet…3 X 2268 = 6804).

- The length of the Calendar of Coligny bronze plaque artefact was
**4.86 feet.**

A very important reason for placing the Circlestone Observatory in that exact
location relates to the** 486/ 243** code. The astronomical evidence shows
that Circlestone was situated such that the **winter solstice sunset** would
occur at an azimuth angle of **243-degrees.**

**Figure 9: The winter solstice sunset, as it would theoretically relate to
Circlestone observatory. The only element that would affect this view would
be the height of the distant horizon to the WSW. Given the high elevation of
Circlestone at 6010 feet it's possible that a fuller winter solstice sunset
orb was observable at 243-degrees azimuth than that depicted above**.

So, Circlestone is showing itself to be based upon the expected approach to setting up a coded structure. It incorporates the selfsame numbers, encrypted by the universal measurement standard that was used from continent to continent in the ancient world. The "misshaping" of the structure was very deliberate in order that important codes could be incorporated and extracted with ease. The codes themselves were a part of a "parcel" of numbers, which related to navigation, calendar determinations and the cycles of both the sun & moon…with a larger emphasis or accentuation of the lunar cycle. Let's extract the long dormant numbers anew and show how ancient priest/ astronomers were using the site as a memory device.

**THE 6804-DAY LUNAR NUTATION CYCLE.**

Tom Kollenborn states that the distance between C to D is 136 feet and, as discussed this would have meant 136.08 feet (less than an inch over 136 feet). This is 68.04 feet X 2.

- The distance from
**G to H**is 17 feet…this should be read as 17.01 feet or ¼th of 68.04 feet. The 17.01 code was used at The Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara in New Zealand.

- The distance from
**I to B**is 68 feet…this should be read as 68.04 feet

- The distance from
**I to J**is 68 feet…again this should be read as 68.04 feet.

- The distance from
**K to B**is 48 feet and although this is a very significant navigational increment under the sexagesimal geodetic system, it's altogether possible it was also read as 48.6 feet under the Sabbatical Calendar system.

- The degree angle from
**I**to the centre of the gateway was intended to convey 147.5-degrees and 68.04 feet simultaneously. The degree angle contains a code for ½ of a lunar month (14.75-days rounded but anciently calculated to be 14.765625-days or 29.53125-days for a full lunar month). The degree angle to the gateway would have been made as close as possible to 147.65625-degrees.

Figure 10: These are the probable coded distances and angles intended by the
builders to be demonstrated within Circlestone Observatory. Most of these relate
directly to the cycle of the Moon, with others relating to navigation and the
size of the Earth.

It is unknown to this researcher why Tom Kollenborn marked the positions of
E, F & K, but one assumes it was because a significant feature was present
in the outer wall at each of those points. The positions also closely coincide
with very significant degree angles, which are:

- Position
**E**is situated very near to 295.3125-degrees. The ancient number used for a full lunar month was 29.53125-days and this figure is encrypted into the Khafre Pyramid's external dimensions**(see article devoted to the Khafre Pyramid in this website).**

- Position
**F**is situated very near to 115.2-degrees and it is obligatory that the 11.52 code surface somewhere within the site, as it was of such manifold general purpose to the ancient astronomical/ mathematical system**(see article devoted to The Great Pyramid in this website).**

- Tom Kollenborn measures
**E to F**as 130 feet. Given the dilapidated state of the outer wall it would not be too presumptuous to assume that this distance would be intended to convey 130.6368 feet or 130.68 feet respectively. If these were the correct mnemonic measures, then the builders have encrypted into the site formulas for remembering the circumference of the Earth under the ancient sexagesimal and "11" series geodetic systems. It is a common practice to encode these "ring of the Earth" numbers into ancient sites or artefacts**(see Pyramid, Octagon, Bush Barrow Lozenge, Stonehenge, Calendar of Coligny or Crosshouse articles within this website for a full explanation).**

- One intriguing formula that ancient astronomer/ navigators used for remembering the sexagesimal system's "ring of the Earth number" was simply to combine the very important 11.52 navigational increment with the equally important 113.4 lunar code (a prominent lunar number that relates directly to the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle…remember, 3-sides of The Great Pyramid equate to 2268 feet (1134 X 2)…6804-days ÷ 113.4 = 60). The width of the "Station stones" rectangle at Stonehenge is 113.4 feet. This value multiplied by 11.52 = 1306.368…or 11340 feet X 11520 = 130636800 feet (the circumference of the Earth in feet under the ancient sexagesimal geodetic system). When this number is divided by 5280 it gives a rendition of the "ring of the Earth" in miles (24,741.81818). One minute of arc under this system is 6048 feet (The Great Pyramid is 3024 feet in base perimeter or ½ a minute of arc for the world under the sexagesimal geodetic system). To calculate the length of the sexagesimal Egyptian Royal Cubit, simply divide 24,741.81818 by 1200 and read the result in inches…therefore, 24,741.81818 ÷ 1200 = 20.61818182 (inches).

- It seems plausible that the distance encrypted
**(E to F)**was 130.6368 feet…on an angle from**(I)**to the centre of the flat wall**(F)**set to 115.2-degrees. If a prominent feature existed on the outer wall adjacent to the E position, then it was probably inbuilt to indicate 295.3125-degrees and relate to the lunar month.

- This concept is supported by the central position of the entry-gate
**(J)**, closely approximating 147.65625-deg (½ of 295.3125-deg).

- Tom Kollenborn shows the distance from
**I to F**as 62 feet. It is unknown to this researcher how the**(I)**position was determined but one assumes that the crossing points of survey strings running from corner to corner within the central structure determined the**(I)**position. Whereas the value of 62 feet has little meaning within the ancient parcel of astronomical numbers, the value of 62.5 feet would be dynamic and very important to encode. The ancient "league" was 16500 feet or 3.125-miles. The value of 62.5 feet would be 1/264th of a league…again introducing the all-important 264 & 528 values. This marginal elongation of**I to F**translates to a better overall value for**I to E**, which would hover very close to 68.04 feet.

**A to I**translates very fluently to 64 feet…a very important increment to remember, which has major applications in both calendar and navigational usage. The value of 63 feet is equally or even more important and one must interchange both numbers frequently when calculating positions within the Sabbatical lunisolar calendar**(see The Calendar of Coligny article within this website for a full explanation).**

- The essential encryption of the 63 value might have been cleverly done by reference to the summer solstice sunrise. We seem to have a positive fix on the winter solstice sunset at 243-degrees and 180-degrees opposed to that position (at 63-degrees) should be the near location of the summer solstice sunrise. The height of the horizon skyline would be the determining factor and if it was slightly elevated in that quarter the sun could be expected to make its appearance around 63-degrees azimuth for that latitude.

**Figure 11: The summer solstice sunrise for the coordinates of Circlestone,
with the ½ orb of the sun above the horizon. The panel gives a reading
of almost 61-degrees, but this could vary markedly if the distant horizon, where
the sun emerged, was higher. Individuals on the site must determine the exact
observable azimuths for solstice rises and sets.**

**THE 486 LUNAR/ SABBATICAL CALENDAR CODE & PHI.**

Throughout the ancient world there was copious use of **PHI** in coded structures
and PHI was of extreme importance to the ancient astronomical/ mathematical
methodology. Sometimes it was very vividly displayed, as it the case of Stonehenge,
where clearly marked circles are in a PHI relationship to each other.

On a small tutorial site like Circlestone it was essential to encrypt the universally
standard mathematical principle of circles and squares reducing in a PHI relationship
to each other.

The general rule of thumb was that the outer defining circle or most prominent
coded circle of an observatory would have a square overlaying it and there would
be a specific PHI relationship in the diameters of both circle and square. The
formula for finding the diameter of the square was to make it **½ PHI
less than the diameter of the circle.**

On several sites around the world (like the Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara
in New Zealand) it is observed that the outmost circle and square combination
then reduces inward by PHI @ 1.6180339 **(see articles in this website devoted
to The Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara or Stonehenge).**

This important PHI related methodology had to be strongly encrypted at Circlestone
so that it would never be forgotten, ensuring that the mathematical principle
could always be taught to initiates of the astronomical arts. If a vivid, demonstratable
PHI station existed to provide an example of how the mathematical method worked,
then any chosen number could be subjected to precise modification in a progressive
process of **PHI reducing circles and squares.** The PHI station for Circlestone
was provided by the flat section of wall to the east side of the site.

The primary benchmark surveying point for Circlestone **was the winter solstice
sunset at 243-degrees azimuth.** This provided the main code upon which Circlestone
was founded… which was the** 243/ 486 **code…also found upon the
**Calendar of Coligny **(4.86 feet long) and at **Stonehenge** in the
"first glint" summer solstice rise position (48.6-degrees).

This is how the "circle and square" PHI relationship principle was encoded at Circlestone:

**Figure 12: The foundation number used at Circlestone was 243/ 486 and the
"flat section" of wall was designed to call attention to a PHI reduction
on a circle of 486 feet circumference. Such a circle would have a diameter of
154.7 feet and the "square" that would overlay such a circle would
be ½ PHI reduced (.80901695) to 125.1535 feet. Kollenborn measured the
distance between site centre (I) to the face of the flat wall as 62 feet and
the ½ value of 125.1535 feet (radius of the blue square shown) is 62.57
feet. It's quite obvious that the flat section of wall, in one of its coded
readings, was designed to represent a ½ PHI diameter reduction on a circumference
of 486 feet.**

- The square, running at the same angle as the wall, lies at an azimuth angle of 25.2-degrees to the left & right hand sides, with top & bottom sections lying at an angle of 115.2-degrees. These are 2 of the most dynamic codes of antiquity, which are found upon the pyramids of the Giza Plateau. Both numbers have many applications within calendar or navigation calculations.

- The outrunning vectors, which intersect at the point where the square overlays
the circle, achieve significant coded values at 3 of the 8 intersections.
These are:
**(1)**79.2-degrees (the Earth was considered to be 7920 leagues in circumference or 7920 miles in diameter under the "11" series navigational system),**(2)**151.2-degrees (the base length of the Great Pyramid for 2 sides achieved 1512 feet),**(3)**259.2-degrees (the Precession of the Equinoxes endured for 25920-years).

- The very important 151.2-degree vector brushes the side of the gateway entrance.

- Various codes run from corner points of the small central structure's walls. One wall, at least, fully codes 17.01 feet per side and relates in a PHI and ½ PHI progression to the 136.08 feet diameter, which runs north-south across the site.

- A series of circles emanating out from the centre are shown to encompass the central structure and brush the corners.

Irregularities in the central square structure will be for encrypting additional
codes, but symbolically, the central region was read as 17.01 feet per side
in one of its readings.

**It is highly likely that a "standing stone" or "cairn"
marker will sit/ once sat outside of the Circlestone perimeter wall and mark
the diameter of a circle with a circumference of 486-feet!**