Section 1, Section 2, Section 3, Section 4, Section 5, Section 6, Section 7, Section 8
From: Ernest Moyer
Sent: Sunday, December 08, 2002 11:26 PM
Subject: Common Fields of Interest
I have been reading your website with fascination. You are into many areas in which I have also an intense interest.
(I stumbled across it on a Google search for Assyrian cubits.)
I respect your intellectual integrity and willingness to admit ignorance in highly developed, (but not necessarily correct), fields, such as linguistics. In my opinion the vast body of linguists have gone off the deep end. I speak from experience, I spent a few months with them in their internet discussion group. They are an outstanding example of a social consensus that has become delusional.
I would refer you to my website but I fear I would turn you off before you had an opportunity to more carefully examine my work.
I thought we might open communications by two recent (still in the process of reworking) papers I wrote. The first is a refutation of Alexander Thom's Megalithic Yard. I think he was chasing a self-created myth, inspired by units of measure he cites from Iberia, etc.
The second is a long narrative, in a somewhat jocular mode, (I don't want scientists refuting me on my lack of scholarly skill), showing the origin of the ancient Egyptian cubit. I suspect you might have an intense interest in my results.
The first paper is short but has a jpg file summarizing my analysis through histograms I would send as a separate file. Also a table sent separately if you so desire.
....at last, someone who takes an interest in measurement standards used by ancient civilisations...
I was invited by Mark Newbrook, professor of Historical Linguistics, to do a full course on the subject (for which I can muster no great passion or enthusiasm).
If they'd allow it to be opened up a bit wherein "other influences" were deemed allowable, then the study would be more interesting. At the moment it's a case of "no transient mariners allowed" to traverse the Atlantic or Pacific to upset established Historical Linguistics theory.
The ancient peoples of the Mediterranean, Near East and Middle East used a far larger parcel of measurement increments than survived into modern times. The British inch and foot are a part of that very ancient survival.
In a general sense, I can detect no orphan systems that were not attached by fluid ratio to each neighboring nation's systems ...they were all related and had sprung from a single ancient source or master system. See: http://www.celticnz.co.nz/Weights_Measures_Volumes/Weights_Measures.htm
Amongst the increments, there was one division of 32.4 inches. There was also copious use of PHI @ approximately 1.6180339 to 1. This can be demonstrated time and time again within ancient structures including Stonehenge. If PHI was being incorporated into circle site or edifice geometry, then there would need to be a PHI based increment or measuring rod.
I believe that Professor Alexander Thom detected it, although he didn't recognise its true nature. When he averaged a particular recurring space or interval within British monuments, which value went on to become his megalithic yard or megalithic rod measures, he possibly didn't take into account the millenniums of surface wear of rock faces. He came up with an average of 82.9 centimetres for this interval...or 32.637795 inches for his megalithic yard (MY).
Within the very ancient integrated systems of metrology, I can find no usage for such a value, however, I can find tremendous usage of a near value. That value is 32.360678 inches or 20 X PHI. This is, of course, simply taking 20 common inches and multiplying them by 1.6180339.
I can also see that 32.4 inches (a "rounded" form of the pure PHI measurement increment) slots into the metrology systems (including volumes) of countries from Babylon to Britain.
For example: 7 rounded MY @ 32.4 inches each would equal 18 Greek feet @ 12.6 inches each or 11 Egyptian Royal Cubits of 20.61818182 inches (as found in the Turin Museum). Alternatively, 9 MY @ 32.4 inches would equal 25 Roman feet @ 11.664 inches. This increment also complies perfectly with known Assyrian or Hebrew measurements.
The Great Pyramid @ 756 feet of base length would be 280 MY of 32.4 inches each, which is also 440 Egyptian Royal Cubits of 20.61818182 inches each. Khafre Pyramid @ 15/16ths the length of the Great Pyramid (or 708.75 feet) would be 262.5 MY of 32.4 inches and carry a lunar cycle tracking code in the MY number derived.
It would appear that the ancient people fashioned their metrology systems in such a way as to include PHI values in a workable form (32.4-inches or a rounded form of PHI). From this, a pure PHI reading (32.360678-inches or 1.6180339-inches) was also possible to calculate into every distance (or volume). Therefore, the Great Pyramid's length could carry dual assignments in rounded PHI (translating easily into a wide range of standard increments used by all cousin nations) or pure PHI values.
The use of these values and all others known between nations was not some kind of intellectual game, but very serious business to do with readings for navigation, solar-lunar & planetary cycles, calendar systems, the precession of the equinoxes, etc. The special parcel of numbers, which had to be remembered at all cost, were also found in the integrated weights and volume systems in use between cousin nations.
By all means, send your critique of Thom's results, etc.
From: Allan Todd.
Sent: Thursday, January 02, 2003 8:35 PM
Subject: New Zealand history
I have just spent the last 5 or 6 hours reading through the emails that have been sent to you. I myself am not a historian of any sort. I'm just a typical European male of Scottish/German lineage. Just thought I would say you are doing a good thing with your research and it's good to see the reverse racism of the few Maori peoples view is not stunting your ideals of a righteous quest for the truth. I have a keen interest in the truth of New Zealand's history as well. One question I feel needs to be asked is that 'If the Maori rendition of New Zealand's history is so true, why is there such a seemingly desperate need to have a total refusal to let Europeans investigate our own history within New Zealand?'
Hamilton, NEW ZEALAND
A few years ago I was undertaking an in-depth study into the design geometry of The Crosshouse of Miringa Te Kakara and, as a part of the research, sought out and had an interview with one of New Zealand's leading experts on the Crosshouse. The gentleman, a European historian with formal establishment credentials and fully affiliated with the upper echelons of the New Zealand archaeological community, said the following toward the end of the interview:
'Let history be whatever the Maori people want it to be. If they wish to believe it was this or that, then let it be so'.
He gave me the impression that the general attitude he shared with his colleagues was one where the importance of regional history was less to do with what had actually happened, in every case, and more to do with allowing those living in the present to feel pride about themselves, their ancestors and their accomplishments as a people.
With a very knowing look, accompanied by enough words for me to get the message, he conveyed that if certain unhelpful negatives need to be de-emphasised, or conveniently forgotten and positives exaggerated and embellished, then so be it. It was like saying that Maori social engineers are at the helm of their own ship and to let them steer whatever course they wish, or say what they like...and don't disagree or make waves.
I admit, this attitude was a bit too touchy-feely and paternalistic for my liking. I prefer the more colourful "warts and all" analysis of history, accompanied by something called, "the scientific approach".
I know that archaeology and history are scientific disciplines that can, without even trying, trample on "sensitivities" and that certain unwanted findings can have a perceived, detrimental or bruising effect on ethnic pride. Whereas I'd like everyone to feel a sense of pride in their ancestry and history, I draw the line when that pride seeks to blockade access to the fuller, true history related to other ethnic groups who have made a contribution to greater regional history.
Such a situation describes the impasse we face in New Zealand, where it's increasingly difficult to clamber over Maori activist political agendas to get to the earlier evidence. Even Maori groups like Waitaha or Moriori, who call for "full disclosure", are relegated to the sidelines and silenced.
New Zealand is a very ancient country. There are many skeletal remains in our burial caves or sand-dunes that predate Maori by millenniums. These more ancient people built or erected pre-Celtic style palisaded hill forts in their thousands, raths, cashels, souterrain dwellings under hills with labyrinths of tunnels, canals, drainage systems, stonewall compounds, standing stone circles, dolmens, obelisks, sighting pits, shadow clefts, mounds, earth amphitheatres, stone excavated cliff dwellings and beehive house villages. They also built gable roof wooden structures with ornately carved lintels, panels and statuettes that often displayed recognisable Mediterranean cultural symbolism.
New finds show that they created "cup stones" for seasonal offerings and fashioned stone "bullaun" bowls in the surfaces of large boulders for their rituals of convalescence or for use as "blessing and cursing altars" just as they did all the way across Europe, from whence their ancestors came, seemingly in the Megalithic/ Neolithic Ages.
So, what about my sensitivities? These are my cousin people. I recognise their handiwork and geometric/ surveying mathematical coding, placed within markers that are scattered across the length and breadth of New Zealand.
It seems a little cruel and insensitive that Maori can own the bones of my "Patupaiarehe and Turehu" people, who were their declared enemies... conquered, enslaved and stripped of their mana. It's very insulting that Maori can disturb or destroy these more ancient remains, at will, whenever "problem" graves are located and need to be rendered "out of sight, out of mind". While acknowledging that the re-interments are mostly overseen by Kaumatuas and carried out with dignity, why are Europeans not involved in the relocation process when such remains need to be moved? I speak, specifically, of remains that display distinct Caucasoid or European physical traits. Why are these remains not allowed to be studied scientifically?
We are not consulted and have no legal right to intervene or stop the wanton eradication, suppression or distortion of our ancient European regional history. Instead, we continue to be told that there was no such history. By the time that history is acknowledged, many of the traces will be gone...but that, seemingly, is the agenda of the activists anyway...along with the touchy-feely, turn-a-blind-eye, overly accomodating, New Zealand academic community.
From: Allan Todd
Sent: Friday, January 24, 2003 10:38 PM
Subject: THE TRUTH ABOUT NEW ZEALAND
You have raised a few good points and also a few more questions which I feel need to be asked.
In response to the Historian you speak of regarding the Cross-house of Miringa Te Kakara - ok, that's a fair enough statement in its own right. To view it from a different angle though, if that is what the Maori people wish to believe then that's their choice. As Europeans why can we not believe and promote what we know to be the truth, and teach it to our children as the Maori version is being taught to our young? And why has it become compulsory for other ethnicities to learn about Maori history yet not their own history?
What harm would be done to the Maori culture by the truth being established or would it just be a blow to their pride? I definitely don't go for the idea that some one's pride should take precedence over the actual truth when it comes to the history of a nation. That to me is a strange and bizarre notion.
Like you, I too prefer the wart's-and-all approach. If it's not the truth then don't tell me about it.
What I still have not yet worked out is if there is an over-abundance of scientific proof regarding Celtic relics, pre-Celtic relics and the like, why doesn't the New Zealand Government release this proof of a more ancient New Zealand history than what the modern version allows us to know about? Why is all this evidence being 'swept under the proverbial carpet'?
This whole whitewash/cover-up gives me the impression that the phrase 'history is built on truth' no longer means a thing. Why should the truth be hidden to accommodate an incorrect version of history. Does this mean that by the N.Z government's standards, we as Europeans are not as important as the Maori people. Is that not a racist attitude in itself? When will we get recognition for what our ancestors have brought and done for New Zealand on an official level as part of this country's history?
How much longer will we be denied the truth for the sake of some one else's pride? It is an absolute insult that Maori have the right to cover up, move and maybe even destroy the ancient remains left behind by our ancestors. What would happen if it was Europeans covering up Maori artifacts and not allowing them to investigate their own history? I feel reasonably secure to say there would be a huge public upheaval to say the least.
In addition to that, why are these finding's being moved, under whose authority, where are they being housed and why are they not being made available to the general public or indeed as you say be studied scientifically? As I said to you in my first email, I am by no means a historian, but I'm not stupid either. As I see things, it appears that the Maori are afraid of the truth. What I feel that's happening here is what I would describe as the total eradication of the pre-Maori, European history of New Zealand
I don't know what or even if there is anything I can do as a New Zealand citizen to help preserve our heritage but I am definitely willing to stand up for the right of the truth to be told. To sit here and know that the remaining traces of my history are being covered up and/or destroyed for the sake of 'someone's pride' seems to me a sick joke that desperately needs to be put right before it's too late.
In last Saturday's (Jan 25th 2003) Herald newspaper there was a full spread called "The Prehistory Dating Game", by Simon Collins, devoted to the present state of New Zealand historical interpretation. After a thorough reevaluation of their facts and figures of recent years, our experts have concluded that they were pretty much right all along and that significant New Zealand human occupation didn't really get underway until about 1350 AD or so.
The experts base this conclusion, in part, on the violent eruption of Mount Tarawera that occurred only about 700-years ago and point out that Maori have no oral tradition concerning this event, which distributed ash as far north as The Bay of Islands or over the Hawkes Bay district.
Despite the lack of knowledge amongst Maori concerning this devastating volcanic eruption, the experts almost stingily concede that there is scant evidence of earlier occupation, but downplay its significance. After some banter back and forth involving a few measly centuries in dispute, the general consensus, for significant permanent occupation, settles out at about 1300 AD. This is reflected by Professor John Flenley when commenting on the possibility of pre-1300's occupation, wherein he states, 'I think they came but remained in small numbers because, apart from hunting and fishing they couldn't really get much to eat. Their tropical crops wouldn't grow very well'. Professor Flenley, "agrees that all the evidence shows a sudden surge in human impacts from about 1300 AD".
Then there's the so-called,"remarkable genetic detective work", which calculates that, "the founding population of Aotearoa must have been at least 100 to 200, including at least 50 females, in order to grow to around 100,000 with the amount of genetic diversity existing when Europeans first arrived".
Beyond the genetic evidence there's the "language" evidence, which focuses on the Austronesian family of dialects, of which the Maori language is one example. The experts say in the Herald article that, "Austronesian speakers migrated out of Taiwan to the islands of the Philippines and Indonesia about 5300 years ago, spreading southeast past Northern New Guinea and the Solomon Islands by about 3600 years ago, interbreeding with the indigenous people and giving present day Polynesians a genetic inheritance which is a mix of Asian and Melanesian gene types. From there the dates are controversial. A theory called the "express train to Polynesia"...suggests the Austronesian speakers pushed quickly into the islands of "remote Oceania" as far as central Polynesia by 3200 years ago and Aotearoa (New Zealand) 1000 years ago".
So, it's all very cut and dried and the experts are committed to a date around 1200-1300 AD with its "sudden surge in human impacts"...starting with the estimated 100-200 people, including 50 women...with occasional, non-impacting individuals having found these shores a century or two previously.
Dissenters who have broken ranks with their colleagues and attempted to move the "first wave of migrations" dates to much earlier epochs have generally paid a very high price for their backsliding heresy. Professor Mike Elliot lost his post-doctorate fellowship at NIWA for submitting a paper showing that fossilised pollen, taken in core samples within silt wash, deep beneath the sea off Hawkes Bay, showed evidence that significant human occupation and deforestation in the Hawkes Bay district was occurring around 600 AD. The New Zealand Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences "complained that analysing fossilised pollen was its business and NIWA should keep out of it".
Professor Richard Holdaway (Zoologist) got into serious trouble for submitting a paper related to Kiore Rats (a Pacific variety) being present in New Zealand from at least 100 AD onward. It is accepted that this Pacific rodent could not have gotten to New Zealand without human participation. Archaeologist, Athol Anderson disassociated himself from Holdaway's carefully arrived at conclusions. In the words of Professor Mike Elliot, "It totally contradicted his (Anderson's) published position and he didn't want it to be true". Holdaway remained steadfast in his conclusions, but his colleagues were divided on the issue (27 for and 24 against at the annual Archaeologist's Conference in April 2002). They finally got a majority consensus (two-thirds) that humans had brought the rats to New Zealand in about 100 AD, but didn't stay themselves.
Professor Mike Elliot saw his career go belly up for showing intellectual integrity in publishing authentic scientific conclusions based upon careful research. This is a fate shared by others, like archaeologist Barry Brailsford (MBE) or, particularly, Russell Price, who did very comprehensive and careful work, aided by large support teams, over several decades at Poukawa. He was able to show conclusive evidence of human activity in the Hawkes Bay district before the 1350 BC Waimihia volcanic ash fall. This conclusion was later verified by New Zealand's leading Pedologist Alan Pullar (expert in identifying the unique constitution of tephra ash from various era volcanic explosions...each one of which has its own clearly identifiable ash band signature).
Russell Price's field notes and 20,000 artefacts (mostly rare or extinct bird bones...and some human made artefacts) are held by Te Papa Museum in Wellington, New Zealand. Allan Pullar's supportive conclusions of Price's work was backed up by carbon dating, which bracketed 3 separate ash bands within specific dates, ranging from the Kaharoa fall (1100 AD...Mount Tarawera), the Taupo fall (186 AD) and the Waimihia fall (1350 BC). At the lowest levels of the site, beneath undisturbed tephra ash were found "cooked Moa bones", which had been broken open to extract the marrow. Some had cut marks on them made with a sharp stone implement (obviously for cutting away the cooked flesh). So, as Russell Price correctly assessed the situation, humans were involved, "unless ancient Moas spent their time breaking themselves up and cooking each other".
Zoologist Richard Holdaway's work, related to the Kiore rat, uses the same precise medium of ash band layering to fix a date as well. He writes, 'most archaeologists have never actually excavated through two feet of ash. It seals everything underneath it. You can see every last wormhole in it and you can see where there is damage to it. So if something is underneath you know it was there before the ash fell...' (Rat Revisionists', 7.12.96... Listener Magazine article).
So, the conclusions of today's conservative academic experts, after weighing up all the evidence, are riddled with "worm holes". While they're busy patting each other on the back and being very self congratulatory about "being right all along", let's discuss the logic behind their "much researched" reassessment of outstanding evidence.
Here's the official plaque, which sits by the gateway entry into Koru PA in, New Plymouth, Taranaki. The plaque shows a drawing of the large archaeological site, with its high stone walls, tiered multi-levels and souterrains (subterranean dwellings or storerooms). This is a huge construction, requiring considerable labour and stone working expertise to build, with some stone walls formerly extending upward around 14 feet high. It's one of several, "stone PAs"(degree of stonework dependent on the availability of suitable stone) surviving in the immediate vicinity...a couple of which are huge. The plaque at Koru PA reads: These lands formed one of the earliest Maori settlements in New Zealand and were probably occupied from about 1000 AD until 1826 when the Waikato drove the Taranaki tribes southward away from the home of their ancestors.
Eh what?...don't you mean "occupied from about 1200-1300 AD" or thereafter when 100-200 people, including 50 women, initiated "a sudden surge of human impacts" upon the landscape of New Zealand? Prof. Nigel Prickett, who did archaeological assessments and drawings of the Koru site, leaves the door slightly ajar in suggesting that "some believe" the site might not have been built until 1350 AD. Is he referring to Professor John Flenley and his entourage, or the linguistics experts who place first arrivals at 1200-1300 AD?
Did Professor Flenley and the geneticists doing "remarkable detective work" forget about the very early epoch construction of Koru PA and the many other large stone walled structures in the region, several of which have "British-type" standing stone observatories sitting adjacent to them? Let's weigh Prof. Flenley's logic in the balance and see how it stacks up in the real world:
the experts to explain how such a massive amount of work (giant excavations, etc.,
often through solid rock) could have been accomplished in this country, by so
few people in such a short passage of centuries (in accordance with the academic
population model). I challenge them to explain why so many large PAs were built
in very early eras for the protection of such, potentially, small populations.
By the expert's model, how many people were available to build Koru PA (or the
other huge structures within a stone's throw of this fortress) in, say, 1350 AD?
That in itself should be sufficient to send them back to the think tank or drawing
board, as their circa 1300 AD theory is unworkable in the extreme...and while
they're at it...why not ask a "real" Kaumatua what the history of this
country was or who the ancient Patupaiarehe people truly were.
This is the central hubstone of the very impressive Koru PA Observatory, which was surveyed and photographed recently. The positions of about 70, mostly large, carefully placed boulder components, lying in the long grass and bracken, were recorded and are undergoing AutoCAD analysis. The ancient astronomers, who configured the site, set the central hubstone to fix onto the benchmark cone position of Mt. Taranaki (now obscured by high tree regrowth). The carefully chosen azimuth angle to Mt. Taranaki is 162-degrees, for a return angle of 342-degrees. This duplicates the surveying methodology used at Stonehenge, where the site was built in relation to 4 Station Stones. At Stonehenge one Station Stone sits at 162-degrees azimuth and another at 342-degrees azimuth. Preliminary analysis shows that the observatory at Koru PA contains the same navigational and cyclic codes, etc., as Northern Hemisphere observatory sites. The hubstone and all other components of the site have been pushed over and the theodolite tripod (shown in the above picture) sits above the original standing position of the hubstone. The central high plateau of Koru PA was configured to have Mt. Taranaki sitting at 161.8-degrees azimuth. This coding was in mnemonic reference to the PHI ratio, used all over the Northern Hemisphere in structures. The ratio is 1.6180339 to 1.
The Koru PA hubstone can be located at S39-deg 07.812 minutes, E173-deg 59.467 minutes. Surveyors are encouraged to record the positions of the 70 + components, some of which sit as far out as 172 feet from the hubstone. Correct orientation for theodolites can be determined by taking a fix onto Patuha trig, in clear weather, which sits at 212.6663-degrees. Alternatively, the crown of Kaitake Peak sits at 208.6223-degrees. The site needs to be treated with reverence and care as it's, potentially, many thousands of years old and displays ancient European "cup stones" (for seasonal offerings) amidst its hefty components.
What's this nonsense that, 'apart from hunting and fishing they couldn't really get much to eat. Their tropical crops wouldn't grow very well'. Eskimos have lived in unbelievably harsh environments, atop the sterile pack-ice, for countless generations and fared very well. Aborigines of Australia can go "walkabout" across stark, hostile deserts and still find plenty to keep body and soul together. New Zealand is an abundant, verdant country, where, in northern regions especially, the temperature fluctuations between summer and winter are so small that individuals can acclimatize to walking around without clothing in any season. It's a far cry from Tierra del Fuego, where Charles Darwin observed a woman suckling her child as freezing sleet fell on their naked bodies or people laid themselves down to sleep on frost covered ground, having long since acclimatized to such appalling, harsh, frigid conditions.
The experts seem to wish to "play down" the abundant South American tuber staple crops, like the many potato varieties, that were easily cultivated in subtropical zones. These tubers thrive in New Zealand's volcanic soils and were here long before British colonisation, complete with accompanying and recognisable South American type stone "potato God" statuettes... such as the large one on Mokoia Island in Lake Rotorua, central North Island. Some stone potato God statuettes were found around the Auckland Isthmus and are on display at the Auckland War Memorial Museum. To suggest any ancient New Zealand association to South America is anathema and forbidden in academic circles... despite overwhelming evidence of a direct link to South America in antiquity.
Besides the many easily grown varieties of potato crops, both taro and yams could be grown in large quantities with apparent ease. Our waterway ditches or wetlands still provide a variety of indigenous or formerly South American edible plants that are high in nutritional value (like Raupo Bulrush...from South America via Easter Island) and these grow naturally and profusely, without any need for cultivation. Maori, to this very day, gather some of these "wild" plant species for their traditional dishes. There was a wide variety of fern roots, cabbage trees, berries (Karaka, Kawakawa) and edible bracken found almost everywhere within the forests, which could be added to the inexhaustible fish and seal protein resources. Anyone with basic bushcraft and marine environment hunter gatherer skills can still live reasonably easily off the New Zealand landscape in any season and moreso in ancient times when the unpolluted coastal or inland waterway food resources, especially, could not possibly be depleted if basic conservation, common sense was adhered to. Inland regions were very abundant in eels, river shrimp (kura) or large birds, as well as protein rich edible grubs.
To suggest that Polynesians/ Melanesians, used to living on a fish rich diet and on small islands in Western or Central Polynesia, where plant and timber resources could be easily depleted, then, after finding themselves in a large country with endless coastal or inland resources... went hungry and faced starvation through lack of gathering skills... is ludicrous in the extreme. New Zealand was an abundant breadbasket and veritable horn of plenty, where one would never go hungry, unless lifestyles were unexpectedly disrupted by a cataclysmic event, particularly bad weather, illness or siege warfare. If nothing else, there were always pipi and toheroa shellfish, as well as crabs in the sand of any beach... or mussels, oysters and paua (abalone) and kina alongside some consumable species of sea snails, periwinkles, small fish (like rock cod, etc.), which could be harvested from seaside outcrops or shallow pools at low tide. There were also edible seaweeds.
According to the Herald article, "1250-1300 is more in line with what early Maori scholars estimated on the basis of whakapapa, or genealogies, which recorded between 18 and 25 generations from the first canoes to the 19th century". This flies in the face of certain Waitaha genealogies, which can apparently show something equivalent to 135-generations of continuous occupation, within New Zealand, up until the present day.
The accumulated facts and basic up front logic show we're being fed a crock...and you, quite reasonably, ask why?
I ask myself the same question every day! The astronomical/ mathematical based structures and associated evidence in the landscape alone are more than sufficient to utterly torpedo the experts, but they don't want to know about it.
From: Lila Smith.
Date: June 20th 2003 16:23
Subject: Koru PA
Dear Mr Doutre,
As a person who was born and bred in Taranaki, I find your site most fascinating and truthful.
At the age of, now, 50 the history of Taranaki, as I once knew it, has been distorted and taken out of context so much that it is hardly recognisable.
After spending much time at Koru Pa and visiting Europe, I firmly believe that your words are correct and that Koru Pa is indeed non-Maori. The same goes also for Turu Turu Mokai.
I find interesting the fact that Tara is not a Maori word and yet it is, in part, the name of the province. I believe that it came from a leader who was not a Maori, but of course, due to re-written history, it is now being told that he was.
What concerns me more than anything is the fact that the Celts landed here many centuries ago and this is well documented so why is it that so many people refuse to believe you regarding Celtic settlement in this country. While travelling throughout Taranaki since my return to NZ, I myself have witnessed the standing stones, walls, old pestle's and mortars amongst many artefacts that many landowners refuse to give up and agree with you entirely about Koru Pa. Koru Pa is not a Maori settlement or Pa and also the many large structures in the surrounding area are not Maori.
Regardless of who was in this country at what time, I feel that to disregard a race, which was living here pre-Maori and throw it under the mat, refusing to acknowledge their contribution to our history, is deplorable. Therefore, I congratulate you for having the courage to find a way to take the truth to the world.
Funnily enough my Great Great Great Aunt was Queenie Perrett, who was stolen from Lepperton, Taranaki by the Maoris in 1870, so my interest as a child, as to how she lived, made me question many older Kaumatua. The one thing that I remember more than anything, IS THE FACT THAT THE OLDER MAORI STATED TIME AND TIME AGAIN, THAT THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE THAT CAME BEFORE THEM WERE CALLED, BY MAORI, ' TANGATA WHENUA..' The most unusual thing of all is that now Maori call themselves the 'Tangata Whenua', when in fact they were not.
Carry on your wonderful work, for in the end I am sure that the people of NZ, all, both Maori and Non-Maori will benefit from what is obviously fact (your work) as opposed to re-written fiction (by the NZ government and activists).
One thing about telling truth is the fact that one cannot be caught out telling different versions, for the truth never lies
Finding a Welsh/ Gaelic or Indian Vedic name like Taranaki in New Zealand isn't much of a mystery, in consideration of who the long-term residents were that occupied New Zealand before the Maori. Both "Tara" and "Nakshetra" are terms that are inseparably connected in the very ancient Vedic astronomical texts of India. In Vedic astronomy the term "Tara" meant star and the most venerated constellation or stellar grouping was Orion, which was associated with Lord Shiva. This attitude of placing Orion in high esteem was shared by the Egyptians, who considered that Orion was heaven and the place where Osirus dwelt. American Indian tribes of the southwest also venerated Orion, and linguistics or religious beliefs show a direct cultural link between the American Indians of, especially, the southwest (Hopi), with India. The Nakshetra was an ancient 9 pointed compass that fixed onto the bright star positions surrounding the belt stars of Orion.
Indian scholars, Deepak Bhattacharya & P. C. Naik state:
The Vedic terms "Nakshetra" and "Tarakka" both mean "Star" ("Tara"). It is our position that the study of Tarakka / Nakshetra was among the primary scholastic activities of a bygone civilization that conceived this nomenclature. http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/DBhattacharya2.php?p=1
As early New Zealand scholar, Edward Tregear, author of, The Aryan Maori (circa 1885) was able to point out, there are many words in the Maori language, which have the same pronunciation and meaning as Indo-Aryan words. He was also able to compare how religious beliefs of India were found in Maori culture.
The European languages are, similarly, Indo-Aryan and also much influenced by Hebrew. (See Phonological Similarities in Germanic And Hebrew, by Terry Marvin Blodgett, Department of Languages, University of Utah, December 1981). The religious beliefs of the Hebrews were much influenced by the early religious concepts of India and many of these are represented by Bible stories and legendary biblical figures.
The nine-pointed-star known as Nakshetra ("nine zones"). The Nakshetra is also perfectly traceable in the sky, falling upon the bright stars that surround the central cluster of Orion's belt stars. It was anciently used for navigation.
Researcher, Joan Leaf, acquainted me with an old song or chant from Northern New Zealand, which spoke of mountains of the north that "look" at each other. It was immediately evident that the chant was indicating a huge circuit alignment, spanning coast to coast, ranging from the Maungataniwha Range to Mt. Manaia on the east coast, and to Maunganui Bluff on the west coast. The alignment configuration is shaped quite like the Hyades constellation in Taurus.
Maori legends and oral traditions speak of Mt. Taranaki having once dwelt in the centre of the country with the mountains Ruapehu, Ngaruhoe and Tongariro, but a love triangle and bitter feud broke out between the active volcanos Tongariro and Taranaki, over beautiful, diminutive Mount Pihanga, resulting in Mount Taranaki being banished to the coast, led by the Puniho stone, now on the Puniho Marae. As Taranaki sauntered westward to the coast he gouged out the great chasm where the Wanganui River now runs. So, we know that strong myths and legends exist, tying all of these volcanic peaks together.
If one looks carefully, the layout of the mountains do indeed suggest the configuration of Orion, with Mt. Ruapehu being Mintaka, Mt. Ngaruhoe being Alnilam and Tongariro being Alnitak The position of Mt. Taranaki would comply to that of Aliegbba. These stars are the central defining stars of Orion. Sigma Orionis could well have been represented by high country of "half height" to that of the volcanos, situated east of Tongariro. The Anasazi star cities of the southwestern United States were set out in this way, in veneration of Orion. (See http://azorion.tripod.com/article_frames.htm )
This close "Orion" configuration relationship between the volcanic peaks would not have gone unnoticed by the very adept astronomer/ surveyors of ancient New Zealand, just as it didn't in Egypt, where the pyramids of the Giza Plateau were set out in an Orion pattern. We know from Waitaha oral traditions that a very long visual alignment went from Maunganui Bluff to the cone of Mt. Taranaki , thus linking the Northern Alignment sequence of mountains with the Taranaki Alignment sequence of mountains. A further linking alignment went from the cone of Mt. Taranaki to Kapiti Island, then onto the mountain peaks of the South Island.
Mount Taranaki was, without doubt, ancient New Zealand's foremost navigational beacon. As an active volcano on the western sea coastline facing Australia and Western Polynesia, it's smoky plume would have been visible for a great distance over the horizon. In line with similar belief systems amongst great civilisations, its imposing majesty would have invited religious veneration and it would not be unreasonable to assume that it represented Shiva-Osirus-Orion (which were largely synonymous), in conjunction with the other volcanic peaks further inland. "Tara" in Maori means apex, fin or spine.
It is my personal belief that "Taranaki" is a derivative of "Tara/ Nakshetra". The way the name for Mount Taranaki is used largely depends on what route of migration you assign to the several "cousin" groups who came to New Zealand in ancient times. Large pockets of Europeans once lived in the now desolate Tarin Basin of China (hence the Caucasoid mummies of Urumchi and their predecessors). Some of these moved north and south between Northern India and China (hence the Aryans), whereas others ventured both west (The Middle East, Near East and Europe) and east (The Bering Strait, Alaska, North America, South America), with isolated pocket groups eventually finding New Zealand from each direction.
Those moving back and forth between Northern India, the Middle East, Near East and toward Europe took or shared religious beliefs, which became the basis of Hebrew/ Israelite religions, as well as those of other cousin nations of the Near Eastern region. Professor Terry Marvin Blodgett can trace where each of the Hebrew based groups ended up, through various waves and during various eras, in the phonetic fingerprints they introduced into each European language. All European languages are largely Hebrew and Indo Aryan, with syllable and consonant variations disguising their common root stock.
Extending the migrations all the way to Britain, we have the "Tara" derived names leaving a trail behind them every step of the way.
In consideration of ancient Welsh/ Gaelic/ Breton/ Khumri variations on "Tara" we have the following:
This way of describing Mount Taranaki's name, which is the result of a more direct route of migration and influx of European cultural idiosyncrasies from Britain and Continental Europe to New Zealand, is very apt. It describes a thunder and lightning god (inseparable elements) that is appeased by fire. Again the god is associated with one of the great lights in the firmament (Jupiter). This name (Taranis/ Taranucus/ Taranaich) and description of the god's attributes fit the profile of "an active volcano" very well.
Inasmuch as the pure mathematical sciences gave birth to the latter religious concepts, I would hazard to guess that the Tara/ Nakshetra scientific construct preceded the Taranis/ Taranucus/ Taranaich religious ideas...although the latter was, undoubtedly, just the science in an easy to remember story form. The early beliefs of the Aryans, who migrated west, were retained in various regions of India and the Hindu God Indra is Taranis/ Taranaich.
The selfsame name (Taranaki) is found in the Waitakere Ranges. Also, Wellington Harbour used to be called "Tara" as the Maori placename for the area. The ancient name "Tara" is used prolifically all over Ireland in many placenames.
In recent correspondence with a lady in Britain , I was told that in the Welsh language the term for "royal dog" is rendered "Cu-ri", whereas in the Maori language it is "Kuri", a parallel that my correspondent found "Cu-ri-ous". She also pointed out that the ancient Welsh called themselves "Cu-m-ri".
This is a statuette (left) of Taranis/ Taranucus/ Taranaich found in Europe. Noel Hilliam, Curator of the Dargaville Maritime Museum (right) holds a wooden carving, found in Northland, New Zealand, with Taranucus symbolism all over it. The parallels between the European statuette and the New Zealand carving are far too astounding to go unnoticed.
The latter arriving European tribes appear to have assigned the name of this Celtic God to Mount Taranaki. The mountain, undoubtedly, already bore this name under a much earlier variation rendered Tara/ Nakshreta. Both names have the same cultural pedigree, the earlier one being purely scientific (astronomical/ navigational and the latter being science metamorphisised into religion. There are several attributes of Taranucus/ Taranaich that must be noted and parallels that must be made to Mt. Taranaki... or to astronomy related structures in its foothills.
Koru PA is, essentially, an ancient Irish Rath/ Cashell. It has a large stone observatory sitting beside it, which is set out for identifying both navigational and astronomical principles...just like the standing stone observatories of ancient Great Britain. This endeavor at Koru PA is perfectly in line with what is inferred by Tara/ Nakshetra (or Mount Taranaki) the cone of which sits, in clear view, at an azimuth angle of 161.80339-degrees from the high platform of Koru PA (the PHI formula, used throughout Stonehenge, is 1 to 1.6180339).
Besides all the stonework you've seen at Koru PA or elsewhere, consisting of standing stone circles, walls, mortars and pestles, etc, etc,...even greenstone artefacts in the same style as those retrieved from German graves or others of Continental Europe and Britain, there are the hair samples. I can remember the platted red and chestnut brown hair of the ancient European people, taken from the rock shelters in the Waitakere Ranges, on display at Auckland War Memorial Museum. It was the hair of Rua Taranaki's Patupaiarehe kinfolk...the long-term residents of New Zealand.
Scholars probing definitions and development of the Maori term "Pakeha" state the following:
The most likely derivation seems to be from Pakepakeha (George, 1999) mythical creatures who are mischievous, human-like beings, with fair skin and hair who lived deep in the forest, coming out only at night. (Biggs, 1988).
The Pakepakeha are also linked to Patupaiarehe by their fair skin and hair. The Patupaiarehe had fair skin and beautiful voices, and gave people the secret of fishing with nets. These creatures possess canoes made of reeds, which can change magically into sailing vessels. The Patupaiarehe can also be linked to Nahes version of Pakeha as an abbreviation of Paakehakeha, gods of the ocean who had the forms of fish and man (Biggs, 1988). See: http://maorinews.com/writings/papers/other/pakeha.htm
Whether one wants to call them Celts (a fairly late era European group... circa 1000 B.C.) or, more correctly, remnants of the Fomorians, Firbolg, Tuatha De Danann or whatever, the fact remains that they were Europeans. They built Megalithic/ Neolithic Age type structures all over New Zealand, many of which were devoted to astronomy or landscape coding of profound navigational principles. Those structures are still in situ, all over New Zealand and are both easy to find and highly measurable.
I can't believe that our archaeologists don't know they're there or can't see them, unless they're incredibly stupid. I believe, instead that they see only what they're allowed to see or only comment on subjects that they're allowed to comment on. If they ever, actually, went out and did real archaeology, they'd commit career suicide and be out of a job overnight. Like the ancient European, platted hair samples that were once on display at the Auckland War Memorial Museum, the old evidence is being eradicated or hidden away as effectively as possible and our, once, "true" local scholars or scientists have long since been replaced by a gaggle of compliant "social engineers". We're being subjected to historical amnesia and forced to forget what we saw, read and knew as historical truth only thiry years ago.
The fact that not one mainstream archaeologist in the country has been outspoken about the disappearance of these well known, well documented artefacts, shows that they'll prostitute their integrity or the dignity of their profession to "play along with the deception" and are worthy of nothing but our greatest contempt. We pay these people to tell us the truth, but in return receive nothing back but deceit. The role of the modern New Zealand, mainstream, archaeologist is to keep the public off the scent, such that they never find the truth. The big deep, dark secret is that New Zealand has had human inhabitants for many thousands of years, and that the long occupying Patupaiarehe people were uru-kehu, kiri- puwhero Europeans.
Whereas, Samuel Johnson, referring to rogue, manipulative politicians of his day said that (false) "patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel", today it's (false) "history is the last refuge of an opportunist liar and thief".
Date: Tuesday, 19 August 2003 09:06
Subject: Scandinavian, or "other" European evidence.
I was speaking to a guy yesterday who was doing some work for the Department of Conservation back in the late 80's and early 90's. He mentioned the discovery of some old bones, which were very quickly secreted out of sight by DOC, in light of the fact that they pre-dated Maori inhabitation of NZ. He said the bones were of a tall race, possibly Scandinavian, very tall, RED HAIR!
He also said that quite often when they were doing field service work on transmitters, they would find burial plots or archaeological evidence of pre-Maori settlement.
He confirmed DOC and some of the Maori tribes are indeed working together to suppress information and destroy evidence. What I would believe to be tantamount to the Taliban destroying the ancient statues in Afghanistan.
Some friends of mine have become quite interested in NZ history back to the Stonehenge ERA, and love the evidence you have been providing....
And in the great words of Mulder.. "The Truth is out there." I am determined to find it.
These concealment teams within DOC, working in collusion with certain suppressionist iwi factions are a tragic fact of New Zealand life. The bones of the "tall ones" with the red hair are the remains of our ancient European people, and many of these skeletal remains predate the (circa 1300 AD) epoch of Maori by thousands of years. A pox be upon those who wantonly disturb or destroy the remains of our people! The lowlife scumbags who commit these criminal acts of desecration do so to advance and promote their own selfish political agendas, which survive only by hiding historical truth. These corridor creepers in DOC, or thieving iwi creatures of the night, have to slink around in the shadows, as they can't work openly and honestly in the light of day when RA is overhead. Theirs are works of darkness and deception!
In a general sense, you would be correct that some of the "tall ones" with the red, brown or blond hair were Scandinavian. Essentially, some groups came to New Zealand from early Continental Europe (evidenced by the kinds of stacked stone or astronomical use structures we're finding on our landscape), whereas others might have come more directly from former European homelands at the eastern base of the Mediterranean. Because our ancient European ancestors shared the same heritage, expressed through measurement standards, beliefs, cultural idiosyncrasies such as symbols, language, plinn rhythms, dance or musical instruments like bagpipes and harps, astronomical/ navigational sciences, etc., many items tend to blend and blur into one related expression over several continents.
New Zealanders will immediately recognise the stylised facial features shown on this belt buckle from Sutton Hoo in England as very similar to what's seen in Maori carving. A Scandinavian burial ship was also excavated on the same English site. On the above artefact a "high hat" is depicted above the "Tiki-type" face. The high hat or extended forehead representations of the "Tiki" figurines is very prevalent in Oceania or Egypt, but somewhat less common in New Zealand.
The strong cultural beliefs, which led to the creation of carved greenstone Hei-Tiki ornaments or pendants, found within Maori culture and, more generally, worn by women, are traceable to Europe and the Mediterranean, with their varied, developing, pantheon of Gods. The Hei-Tiki is also found in Lima Peru, Mexico, Palestine, and, especially, Southern Egypt.
The New Zealand Hei-Tiki pendant and the squat wooden or stone "totem" statuettes from which it is derived, is our local version of "Bes", the Southern Egyptian God of pregnant women and the protector of mothers, children and the home. When our ancient people abandoned Egypt to the encroaching desert and moved into the verdant territories of Europe or elsewhere, early cultural symbolism, such as that which led to religious concepts of "Bes", or similar dwarf Gods, went with them. Bes and his counterparts in many lands became a much loved, hairy and ugly, little bowlegged protector-entertainer God, found in effigy statuettes or murals within homes/ community buildings from Egypt to New Zealand...Bes/ Pan/ Puck/ Tiki/ Rongo.
Parallel words exist in many ancient languages - Puca in Old English, Puki in Old Norse, Puke in Swedish, Puge in Danish, Puks in Low German, Pukis in Latvia and Lithuania. The pre-Christian Greeks represented him as a pipe playing, fun loving, mischievous little dwarf God, who was a shepherd and who always questioned authority. In Britain he was the God of the common people, also known as Robin Goodfellow. Whether Pan of Greece or Puck of Britain, he retained many attributes of the dwarf God Bes from Egypt, including associated symbolism. In Egypt he protected mothers and children from snakes, scorpions and lions and was often depicted as holding a snake in his left hand and a short sword cleaver in his raised right hand. Some European depiction's of Puck show the snake in the left hand. The Roman Christians turned this little Greek sator shepherd/ God of nature and fertility into the devil (Satan), and thus destroyed the adoration and high esteem formerly vested in him by the common people.
Bes of Egypt was an ugly little bowlegged dwarf with a large head, flat nose and deeply creased "V" forehead brow. He had big bulging eyes, a comically round protruding belly, was mostly depicted with his hands on his hips or upper thighs, tongue poking out and genitals prominently displayed... in exactly the same way as many Maori statues by portals or gates. He was a fun little god who danced for the children, but could turn terribly ferocious in their protection. Bes was very popular with the common folk of ancient Egypt, as elsewhere, and was a household deity. As mentioned, he developed into Puck to the Celts/ Britons or Pan to the Greeks. He was a god of amusement, pleasure, music, dance and the ever watchful protector of children. In some Mediterranean depiction's of Bes he plays a harp, tambourine or flute. In Greece Pan played the pipes. A relief in the tomb of Hatshepsut illustrates Bes being present at her birth and other relief's on Egyptian walls suggest he was connected with childbirth.
He was often depicted as carrying a weapon for the protection of women and children. In very early Egyptian relief's or statuettes the weapon is symbolised by the hieroglyph "SA", which is shaped quite like a greenstone Maori Patu/ Mere or club (also found in German graves and made of green jade to the same general design configuration) The "SA" hieroglyph means "protection". In latter Mediterranean depiction's the weapon is a knife or short sword/ cleaver, which derived or developed from the Egyptian "Ankh" symbol (a later development of "SA")...also used to signify "protection". It is in direct consequence to this that the squat, large headed, round bellied, genital protruding, bandy legged totem statues at the entryways to Maori villages held a Patu/ Mere shaped club. The club itself is symbolic of the Egyptian hieroglyph "SA", which means "protection". The totem statues by portals or gates are, therefore, strongly warning the ill intentioned, malevolent intruder, either from the physical or spiritual realms, that the ever vigilant Bes is poised ready to strike down any who come to do harm.
The fact that the New Zealand totems often depict the Patu or Mere club, which is so similar to the earliest "SA" hieroglyph representation, shows that the culture that, originally, brought Bes to these shores instituted the oldest venerated expression of Bes. In the Middle Kingdom of Egypt the "SA" (protection) hieroglyph was used as a decorative element in jewelry and on magic wands, and later, in the New Kingdom, it was often combined with the Ankh, Djed and Tyet (Isis knot).
If a Maori statuette or totem, showing the typical, short, bandy legged and big headed effigy, with the protruding tongue, genitalia or round belly, as well as the heavily creased or "V" forehead... and sporting a "SA" shaped weapon of protection, was placed into an Egyptian or Libyan marketplace, even today, everyone would immediately recognise it as a depiction of the God Bes. So, let's have a look at the old Egyptian representations of "Bes" as he was portrayed throughout the ages.
The ugly, but beloved little dwarf god, Bes of Southern Egypt, protector of pregnant women, mothers and children. He is shown here in typical stance, with his very pronounced "V" brow or forehead, which became the "V" forehead depression in the Tiki pendant. Generally, he would be shown with hands on hips or upper thighs and bandy legged, which became the adjoined arms and leg features on the Tiki pendant. He was often depicted as having big round "google" eyes, another attribute of the Tiki design. Bes was "hairy", with the hair ends of his beard curling into the (koru) spiral. Regionally, the greenstone or whalebone Hei-Tiki pendant was a development from the more commonly carved, New Zealand wooden totem, which stood adjacent to doorways or at gateway portals, where anyone entering had to walk past "Bes" or between his legs. These statue depiction's of New Zealand showed the tattooed "V" forehead (moko), the cheek spirals, based upon the beard hair spirals of Bes, the big head with the menacing expression, the protruding tongue (as shown above), The small body with the protruding and rounded tummy, a pronounced belly button and conspicuously exposed genitalia, arms and hands arching inward to the hips, upper thighs or belly, as well as bandy little legs in an almost squatting stance. The last picture in the above set, bottom far right, shows a column relief of Bes dancing for the children.
The ugly, but beloved little god Bes, tongue protruding and looking menacing, showing all of the same attributes as his Egyptian counterpart several continents and oceans removed, guarding the portals of this ornate Patu-pai-arehe/ Maori pataka building. He was the sentinel at the gateways to villages, often brandishing his "SA" hieroglyph Patu/ Mere-club, the sign of protection to the women and children of the village. When a baby smiled or laughed for no apparent reason, it was because Bes had pulled a funny face. He was always there in times of illness, childbirth or distress to comfort, help and protect.
In Tahiti, Hawaii and other regions of Polynesia the Bes statue representations tended to retain the high hat of Bes, as seen in these Egyptian depiction's. Priests of those regions continued to wear the high hats as a symbol of office. The figurine to the left will be very recognisable to New Zealanders, as displaying the earliest form of "Hei-Tiki" attributes. All three pictures show the poking tongue, which is prominently displayed on early New Zealand wooden totems or stone effigies of the bandy-legged little god. In the right hand picture Bes is accompanied by the "SA" hieroglyph indicating "protection".
INTERNET REFERENCE TO BES.
...He was a grotesque-looking dwarf-god, but benign in nature. He was depicted wearing a plumed crown, normally with a beard, and his broad, mask-like face was surrounded by a lion's mane and ears. His tongue protrudes in a playfully aggressive manner. He looked like a bandy-legged dwarf dressed in either a panther skin or a kilt, and a lion's tail and he frequently carried musical instruments.
Together with Tawaret, his most important function was as protector of childbirth, and amulets of these two deities were immensely popular. His popularity covered common people´s homes as well as the royal court. Images of him have been found on walls at some workmen´s homes at Deir el-Medina, perhaps in rooms used for women and childbirth. He is also seen painted on a frieze on a wall in the palace of Amenhotep III at Malkata. There are decorations in the figure of Bes at everyday items like the footboard of beds and on the headrests, on mirror handles and on cosmetic tools and implements.
There is a spell which is to be recited four times over a clay dwarf which is placed on the crown of the head of a woman in labour, to help against complications. In it Bes is called: 'great dwarf with a large head and short thighs' and 'monkey in old age', here used as a means for defense against the dangers of childbirth.
Bes´ ugliness and aggressive appearance was, in typical Egyptian manner, used as a defense for the family and thought to ward off evil spirits and chase away serpents and scorpions from the house. He was often depicted as the demon Aha, strangling a snake in each hand.
The 'Sa' hieroglyph, meaning protection, is often seen held by Bes, and he can also be shown with his arms outstretched and with hawk´s wings suspended from them. This conveys the solar symbolism of Heru of Behdety, not to link Bes with that particular god, but it was used for magical purposes.
Musician, merry-maker and bringer of good luck
Despite brandishing a sword and having a ferocious appearance, Bes has a genial temperament expressed through merrymaking and music. In the tomb of Queen Tiye´s parents, in Dyn 28, Bes is seen striking a tambourine, and more than 1000 years later, he still makes music, this time on a harp, in the temple of Het-Hert (Gr: Hathor) on the island of Philae.
Bes is first and foremost a deity connected with everyday life, but there are examples that he also appeared in some form in the Underworld. In the mythological papyri of Dirpu, the deceased comes to a gate guarded by a deity with the head of Anpu and the body of knife-wielding, serpent-strangling Bes.
The Late Period
He was also considered to bring good luck and prosperity to married couples and their children, and especially in the Late Period being connected to sexuality and childbirth. Therefore his image is found on all of the mammisi (birth houses) during this period, and his head is also seen above the Horus child on 'cippi' or stelae. It is also in this period that there were 'incubation' or Bes-chambers built at Saqqara. Their walls were lined with mud-plaster figures of Bes and a naked goddess, and it has been suggested that perhaps pilgrims rested there, hoping to have healing dreams for their sexual or fertile powers. In the Roman Period, Bes figurines exist where he is clad in legionary garb. His popularity went beyond the borders of Egypt, and his image is found at Kition in Cyprus, on an ivory plaque (ca 1200 bc.)and Phoenician ivory craftsmen decorated the caskets and furniture of Nimrod in Assyria... http://www.philae.nu/PerAnkh/perankhB.html
To the left is shown the "SA" hieroglyph of Egypt, which means "protection". This is the symbol that often accompanies mural or statuette depiction's of the dwarf God Bes. Although Egyptologists can only speculate as to the origin of the hieroglyph, or the object from which it was originally derived, it does, in fact, bear a close resemblance to a hand club for close combat, with knife like edges for cleaving in the skull of an adversary. Club weapons of this type, made of wood, were found in various forms in Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia. The design of the "SA" hieroglyph moves from a bulbous, club-like end to a central handle or grip, which then flares or widens. Three horizontal lines are seen in the "grip" or handle region.
With the hieroglyph signifying "protection", it would not be unreasonable to suggest that the object from which "SA" was originally derived was a club, with knife or thinned edges to each side of the "business" end of the weapon. This makes sense when one considers that late depiction's of Bes showed him bearing a knife or short sword cleaver.
The second picture shows a typical Maori gateway to a village. Guarding the gateway are a series of "Bes"-like figurines in composed and placid, or angry and threatening poses, with each bearing a greenstone "Patu"/ Mere weapon. A ceremonial greenstone Patu/ Mere is shown in the third picture, in its simplest or oldest design configuration. The overall shape of the Patu/ Mere is that of the Egyptian "SA" hieroglyph (hieroglyph means a picture language, based upon the shapes of real objects), which often accompanied portrayals of Bes. The wooden or whalebone Patu/ Mere was a very effective close combat weapon for cleaving in the skull of an opponent and was oftimes used by the Maori warriors for executing captives, generally by a blow to the right side of the skull of a kneeling victim. This researcher has seen skulls of the former Tangata Whenua, Turehu people, wherein they died in this gruesome manner.
The fourth picture shows Ramesses II preparing to dispense with his enemies, by a blow that will cleave in the side of the skull. Below his left elbow is seen the "SA" symbol of protection and below that yet another symbol that strongly resembles the more simple shape of the Patu/ Mere. This panel of Ramesses II appears to accentuate "protection" of the kingdom by the subjugation of enemies.
The New Zealand or European greenstone/ jade examples of Patu/ Mere/ were only for ceremonial usage, as the labour in carving and finishing such a precious, venerated, hardstone object could take the lifetime of a single artisan. It was traditional practice to carve two or three horizontal rings around the butt end of the handle or grip of the New Zealand Patu/ Mere, consistent with the three lines appearing on the "SA" hieroglyph. It was always the practice to add a wrist string to the weapon, such that if it was knocked from the hand during battle, it would not be lost, but could be quickly clasped anew. The flaring ends of the "SA" hieroglyph might be indicating the wrist string or double strings of the club/ cleaver. It's interesting that the name for the weapon is "Patu" and that the Maori umbrella terms for the earlier, kiri- puwhero and uru-kehu, "stonebuilder" or "greenstone folk" was Patu-pai-arehe or Turehu.
A famous Northern Chief at the time of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi was "Patuone". We know that the Maori word "Pa" represents "fortress" and "Patu" a weapon of protection. We also know that the "Turone" were a Continental European Celtic tribe who venerated the deity Taranis or Taranaich (rendered Taranaki or Tawhaki...the God of thunder and lightning in ancient Europe or New Zealand). Perhaps the name of the Nga-Puhi chief "Pa-tuone" contains parts of these several traditional meanings spanning oceans, related to the earlier inhabitants, their language and beliefs.
To the right is seen front and rear pictures of an ancient Egyptian Bes figurine in green/ blue turquoise stone, presumably from a domestic household where children were present. To the right is the more popular and later form of the New Zealand greenstone Tiki. This perfectly cut and shaped "commercial" Tiki is the result of fabrication by diamond cutting tools, whereas the earlier, pre-colonial Tiki's, produced by the greenstone folk, were the product of many years of very hard labour. The earliest form of New Zealand Tiki had the somewhat more upright head, like the Egyptian exemplar of Bes, or the ancient Mexican equivalent to Bes/ Tiki.
All attributes of the dwarf God Bes, as found in Egypt and transferred by the migrations of people in and around the Mediterranean or Europe, also found their way to the Pacific and were preserved here for over three millenniums. In ancient Egypt it was a practice to fashion the "big eyed" Bes head pendants using venerated and precious green Nephrite (jade) hardstone, as shown in the third picture to the right. The fourth picture shows yet another Greenstone (jade hardstone) Tiki from New Zealand, this one held within the British Museum collection and taken into their possession during the 1800's. Yet again, a strong cultural idiosyncrasy, related to fashioning Bes figurines in the medium of green stone (Nephrite/ jade or turquoise), is present at both ends of the Earth and separated by, possibly, several millenniums of time. As mentioned, the second Egyptian statuette picture from the left, showing a tongue protruding Bes with a high hat, is the most commonly desplayed depiction/ form of "Tiki" in the Hawaiian Islands, as well as other Island groups of Central or Western Polynesia.
REFERENCES TO THE DWARF GOD IN ANCIENT MAORI NAMES.
In the ancient Maori genealogical (whakapapa) charts several of the ancestral lines preserve references to the dwarf God (Bes) in the names of ancestors. Maori personal names always described an event, object, emotional response or religious reference in the compound word that constituted the final rendition of the name. One of the ancestors was Po-maru-ehi, (also rendered Po-maru-wehi), which signifies (dwarf power of night). In the ancient tongue the terms "ehi" or "wehi" made reference to the dwarf. In the Maori language there is no "B" or "S" (no pun intended) and the natural way of rendering a name like Bes or Bessie would be something equivalent to Ehi or Wehi. Other names that appear to preserve some reference to the dwarf God are: Wehi-nui-a-mamao (great fear of the distant), Maru-wehi (power that trembles), Wehiwehi (dread), Taku-wehi (my fear), Po-maru-wehi (crushed by fear), Kahu-ngunu (garment of the dwarf), Haka-matua (dwarf parent), Rua-whewhe (pit of the dwarf), Maru-tauhea (tauwhea) (influence of the dwarf). Names like Rua-tipua (tupua) (pit of the goblin) or Whiro-tupua (goblin god) might also have once had reference to Bes/ Rongo. There are many names of ancestors that include Rongo and these seem to be based upon the South American route that the Bes traditions took in their migration to New Zealand. Perhaps there was a late mixing of the South American Rongorongo or Matuatonga potato God religious influences with the Egyptian dwarf God traditions. The dwarf God statuettes at portals or gates are often called Rongo.
Variations to these names, renditions or spelling related to the dwarf God, his attributes or possessions, are due to his having several names or that the above examples come from several different iwis (tribes) within New Zealand. In the earliest days there was no "singular" Maori language and although the spoken tongue seems to have been fairly consistent or understandable around the country, there were the usual and expected variations in pronunciation from region to region. Preserved, very ancient Waitaha language is purported to be a significant departure from modern Maori and quite guttural in its delivery. The Moriori language also had many significant, older language forms within it.
All of the primary elements are present, which demonstrate that the most common statues at Maori portals or village gateways are a regional expression of Bes, the dwarf God of Southern Egypt. The local version of Bes could not include certain of his faraway, Egyptian, protective cultural expressions, which related to the killing of threatening lions, snakes and scorpions, as all such species were unknown to or soon forgotten by the long-term populations of New Zealand.
THE DANCE OF BES.
Masculine forms of the Maori haka were, without doubt, in the earlier era of the Patu-pai-arehe people, dances of Bes, where the performer attempted to encapsulate all of the facial characteristics and physical attributes of the protective little Egyptian dwarf God. The dancer, to this day, assumes a squat or bow legged position and stomps the ground with all the force he can muster, slapping the thighs, rolling bulged out eyes, chanting ferociously while grimacing and poking out the tongue. The fearsome display is designed to let any challenger know that there will be no quarter given and that unwarranted incursion will be met with ferocity unto death. This was the role of Bes, the unflinching, uncompromising protector of women and children. Some of these male hakas of yesteryear, within living memory, were commenced low, at ground level, on one knee to accentuate the diminutive size of the dwarf god or to imitate his portrayed design on the Hei-Tiki pendant. In recent years the haka form that we in New Zealand and the rest of the world have become most acquainted with is the one performed by our "All Blacks" football team.
Soldiers of the Maori Battalion perform a haka in the Middle East during W.W.II. As in all haka performances, correct execution of the dance requires that the performer either squats low or assumes a position on one knee when commencing the dance. Throughout the dance the stooped or squatting appearance is religiously maintained. This can only be in homage to diminutive stature of the ferocious little dwarf God Bes, down from whom the Maori haka dances of protection for the whanau have come.
When a dignitary goes, formally, onto a Maori Marae they are accorded the honour of a challenge, wherein they are to walk unperturbed and without fear toward a weapon bearing warrior. The warrior seeks to intimidate the dignitary and break their resolve, courage and composure by his threatening antics, movements, grimaces and active dance. The warrior assumes a low, squatting or springing position and bulges out the eyes in wild fury, the tongue darting and the face grimacing. A token of peaceful intent is included in the ceremony, which allows the warrior to withdraw. The "challenge" contains all of the eye bulging, tongue lashing, symbolism of Bes, the dwarf god of Egypt, whose responsibility it was to vet all comers and allow no visitor into the household whose intent it was to do harm.
Despite the outwardly threatening appearance of the Bes haka dance to the uninitiated, women and children of the ancient tribes, or any who fully understood the benign tradition of Bes, would see a pseudo serious/ comical aspect within the male haka and be both heartened and amused by it. Knowing that the dancer was imitating Bes, the audience would look to performers who excelled in providing the most pronounced bulging of the eyes, extreme grimaces or facial, tongue whipping expressions. The comical aspect of Bes-related dancing is, quite probably, preserved in many of the haka dances of greater Polynesia. One of the most entertaining is the Tahitian "mosquito" dance, a very lively performance where the dancers jump to and fro, slapping themselves mercilessly. In another memorable Tahitian dance the belly is rolled in a very amusing way that's guaranteed to bring the house down with laughter. This hilarious ingredient of the dance, if it has a pedigree back to the ancient Children of Poutini, would have been in homage to the comically rotund, funny belly of Bes the comedian entertainer. It must take the performers of this dance considerable practice to learn how to do the bizarre tummy-roll. Belly-roll or women's "belly dancing" has long since been a traditional norm in Egypt and its satellite countries and tolerated by the Muslim religious leaders. The island of Moorea, opposite Papeete in the Tahitian group, was called, 'the island of the fairy folk with golden hair' (see Riddle of the Pacific, by James Macmillan Brown).
It seems reasonable to assume that these religious dance influences were passed down from the "Children of Poutini" ...the uru-kehu (reddish or golden tinged hair) and kiri-puwhero (light complexioned, reddish skin) offspring of Tangaroa/ Tangaloa who were, eventually, chased out of the Islands of Polynesia and fled to sanctuary in New Zealand. They were later found in New Zealand by the newly arriving Polynesian/ Melanesians, who, for a time, had to live, 'under the 'mana of the Patu-pai-arehe' or Turehu (the Children of Poutini). During this period of peace and sharing of unknown duration, the Patu-pai-arehe people taught many of their cultural expressions to Maori, including their Egyptian forms of moko chin tattooing for women or the more extensive facial tattooing for men. Maori oral traditions tell us that the art of Moko was learned from the Turehu, in such legends as the story of Mataora (Maori) and Niwareka (Turehu). This account also shows that aspects of haka (dance) were shared between the two cultures.
If Maori political activists and their entourage of "in the pocket, Uncle Tom" archaeologist/ historian/ anthropologist/ geneticist lackeys, who'll bend the truth to suit the required politics, continue to hold to the singular "Taiwanese" pedigree of all Maori, then they automatically dispossess themselves of the most profound cultural roots found within Maoridom. They can kiss "Good-bye" to many Mediterranean patterns like the koru, chevron, etc., many stories-myths-traditions, many religious expressions, most Gods such as Hei-Tiki or Rongorongo, much of the symbolism and art, large segments of language roots, virtually all landscape structures, all measurement standards and cairn marked geometries, most of the edible or staple crops and flora from other lands like South America, styles of dress, Egyptian/ Pictish pattern designs in facial tattooing and the deep-set religious pedigrees within traditional dancing, chants or song, etc. Staple food plants or other useful plants of Polynesia, originating in South America or Egypt and extending to New Zealand, include: kumara, karaka berry, the cotton plant, the bottle gourd, capsicum, banana, soapberry, tomato, papaya, pawpaw, pineapple, manioc, maize, potato (about 23 varieties), cabbage tree (Yucca), the Nile valley's bulrush or catspaw as well as taro (many varieties) from Egypt. Yam (a form of potato) could have come from several regions, including Egypt and South America.
Most significant aspects of the culture never came from the Taiwanese/ Malaya theatre of the world. To deny or render worthless and unmentionable, large sections of one's ancestry, regardless of the fact that some forebears were a beaten, captured and enslaved class without mana, is to demean the blood that flows, whether by ancient consent or force, within one's own veins. Apart from Waitaha and Moriori, who openly acknowledge and pay reverence to "all" their distant ancestors, mainstream Maori cannot now claim the "stonebuilders" as ancestors, having denied their memory for too long. The Patu-pai-arehe have been, clearly, relegated to another ethnic category. They were the "strangers", separate and distinct from, or classified as the enemies of, Maori, to be hunted to extinction. Sadly, even the existence of Waitaha and Moriori is disclaimed by this small, controlling political faction and gaggle of very vocal "spokespeople" at the helm of Maoridom. No prior claimants to the country, predating Maori, are tolerated and the very ancient regional histories of Waitaha or Moriori, etc., are not accorded formal recognition.
The early, traditional or "religious" dances brought to Oceania by the European/ Mediterranean people, thousands of years ago, would have included the dances of Bes for the entertainment/ protection of mothers and children. By appearance, the surviving "Bes" haka, which is, more-and-more, misinterpreted as, solely, an "offensive" warrior challenge, rather than a "defensive" protection dance, is becoming too dominant in New Zealand society and pushing the more serene women's long and short poi dances into the half remembered background. Many New Zealanders would like to see greater emphasis put back onto the women's graceful dances, with the easy listening harmonies, or see more of the children's stick and hand clap dances (See, Parallels in broad plot and fine detail between a Greek myth and a Maori myth). E:\Taranaki\GreekMaoriMyth.htm
The picture to the left is a Hei-Tiki found in Mexico. It is shown in volume XXXV of the Journal Of The Polynesian Society under the title, Notes and Queries (417) A Mexican Tiki. The Journal Of The Polynesian Society was, through much of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century a very respected and prestigious scientific periodical. The picture to the left shows 3 Egyptian women (listed 1,2,3) with a Maori woman listed as (4). The Egyptian women are Assouan, from Upper Egypt. All display chin, lip or forehead tattoos. This picture and accompanying article appeared in The Journal Of The Polynesian Society, Volume XIII - 1905.
The article and picture first appeared in the Otago Witness newspaper and included the following commentary, 'The London correspondent of The New Zealand Times says, - 'General Robley, the well known authority upon Maori art, sends me a sketch that he made of Assouan villagers now on view themselves at Earl's Court'.
'The sketch shows that the married women of this tribe far up the Nile are tattooed in a manner remarkably similar to that in which the Maori women used to be tattooed, namely on the lips and chin and now and again on the forehead.... General Robley has found on some of the earlier Egyptian mummies certain ornamental designs, which have hitherto been considered purely Egyptian, but he finds that they are identical to some of the most ancient Maori patterns' (emphasis added). See: The People Before, by Gary J Cook & Thomas J Brown pgs. 148, 150.
There is a very fine line of associated definition in Maori nomenclature for statuette/ totem portrayed, physical attributes of the "deformed" (haka) "stunted" (hakahaka) dwarf god (Rongo/ Bes), in addition to the term for dance (haka)... when compared to Egyptian fertility/ good-luck tattooing (Harquus). The tattooing or body painting, ritually done in ancient Egypt, was also strongly associated with dance. In Egypt, the concept of a female version of Bes existed. This appears to have been case in New Zealand also.
For further reference to traditional female facial tattooing (Harquus) of North Africa/ Egypt and it's Mediterranean environs see links extending from:
Bes related belly dancing for fertility/ good fortune/ protection, as found in Egypt,... and incorporating facial tattooing (harquus), as well as the more extensive body tattooing/ painting (henna)... can be compared to the "worlds apart", Pacific patterns found on sacred tapa cloths (painted prayers... rangoli)...
The religious symbolism found in body tattooing/ dance, of both regions, is an inseparably linked, shared cultural expression, spanning continents and oceans. Each aspect of dance or tattooing stems from the same Egyptian/ Mediterranean/ Indian/ root source, originating in the Tarin Basin/ Indus Valley/ Mediterranean/ European religious beliefs and practices of remote antiquity. Because of it's very ancient pedigree, this form of cultural symbolism or expression has been tolerated and allowed to persist in otherwise "very strict" Muslim countries.
THE DEMISE OF THE PATU-PAI-AREHE (EUROPEANS).
In the later carnage, the villages of the Patu-pai-arehe and all possessions not hidden in swamps or secreted away in the ground were taken over by the warriors and the former people annihilated or forcibly enslaved. The Bes totems that guarded the community meeting houses, patakas or village gates were, originally, Patu-pai-arehe. The earliest greenstone Hei-Tiki pendants (Bes) and greenstone Patu/ Mere's ("SA" hieroglyph ceremonial protection symbols) were taken as "prizes of conquest" from the children of Poutini, also known as the greenstone folk and the white, flaxen haired offspring of Tangaroa, God of the Sea. The Gods of these Patu-pai-arehe or "stonebuilders" were, Ammon RA in squatting form (preserved in Moriori culture) Taranicus or Taranaich (Taranaki)...Celtic God of thunder and lightning, Bes/ Puck the dancer/ protector of the home and the Egyptian supreme God RA (the Sun), in conjunction with and embracing Nut (wife of the Sun-God... depicted as Rangi and Papa). There were also bird headed Gods, which seemed to come to New Zealand (via Easter Island) from South America and aquatic, serpent headed or dragon headed Gods, which might have come from regions like Scandinavia.
The picture to the left is the supreme God, Ammon RA, shown on the Egyptian Hypocephalus funerary amulet. This is the ribbed, squatting god, which is a derivation or metamorphised rendition from early astronomical geometry of Egypt. The three figures to the right, showing the ribbed, squatting God, are Moriori from the Chatham Islands of New Zealand. In the Egyptian example the 4 rams heads of Ammon-RA look to the 4 quarters of the Earth and above the heads sits the plumed crown of Ammon RA. In the 3 Moriori examples to the right of the Hypocephalus, an artistic attempt, thousands of years removed from the Hypocephalus amulet depiction, very adequately preserves the sideways looking faces and overhead crown of Ammon RA the Sun God (see the middle one of the 3). The extreme right hand rendition is a tree trunk carving and the "V" returning (chevron) placement of the arms attempts to duplicate the balancing staffs on the knees of Ammon-RA. It is a tremendous accomplishment of the Moriori Tohungas and learned Kaumatuas/ Kuias to have preserved this symbolism, in distant isolation from the mother country of Egypt, so well for so long. The Chehalis (Coast Salish) Indians of North America preserved the symbolism in almost duplicate manner.
And so Hiren, the "worst kept secret in town" relates to the "cover-up" of the ancient European Patu-pai-arehe history and existence. Despite the immoral extremes that a few scumbags in government departments and some iwi have gone to in order to maintain secrecy and erase memory of these people, virtually everyone knows about them. The futile attempts at socially engineering our history and replacing it with a squeaky clean, plastic, Ronald McDonald version has been an abject failure. Some of us are old enough to remember the old stories told to us by the true Kaumatuas and aged Elders/ Kuias (the ones who received training at the feet of their grandparents or within the Wharewaananga) ...rather than the corporate Kaumatuas, who know about nothing except the colour of money.