It is the eternal contention of this researcher that the Great Pyramid never had a physical capstone in place, as it was essential to "not have one" if the pyramid was to divulge geodetic codes for world navigation and deliver up such information as 1-degree of arc under the 3 slightly varied geodetic systems.
Let's see if the geometry found within the Octagon supports that contention. We'll have to do this in stages and set up parts of the Octagon's central geometric template in order to see the Great Pyramid geometry clearly.

This exercise will be rather involved and calls for the added concentration of the reader through this section.
We have to begin by introducing a set of PHI codes directly associated with Stonehenge, but originating on the Giza Plateau with the pyramids.

Figure 24: The PHI progression at the Octagon. Researchers are encouraged to look very carefully at how parts of the expanding PHI circles and squares relate to inner small mound, gateway and embankment edge or corner positions. It will be immediately recognised that there are many PHI relationships. Take particular note of the 2nd outward square from the middle, as this one has particular importance in the way that it brushes through the gateways. Its side lengths, @ 1152 feet per side, represent one of the biggest codes of antiquity.

To explain: Ancient astronomers would watch the heliacal rise of Sirius, which gave them a figure of 365.25-day intervals. They knew that this figure, although very close to the duration of the true solar year, had some error in it. The amount to be deducted was 11.52 minutes from the 365.25-day figure to render the corrected year 365.2420 days... the same as is found upon the Mayan calendar.

Figure 25: Stages of the PHI progression rotated 6.84 degrees. The central square, which is exactly twice as big in side value as the 466 feet PHI circle at Stonehenge, now resides on the inner mound tops and would once have been marked at all 4 corner positions, as they related to the small mounds.

In our search for how component parts within the site relate geometrically to a "Great Pyramid", we will now turn our attention, momentarily, to the small horseshoe shaped circle to the south exterior of the main Octagon embankments. Several elements of geometry, converging upon this secondary structure, establish its centre position perfectly. Let's consider a few of them:

Figure 26: The centre of the small horseshoe circle is found by circular and linear geometry. Its centre is 850.5 feet from the centre of the 8 embankments of the Octagon. A circle of this radius (red) brushes 4 Octagon gateways before entering midway through the entry path into the horseshoe. At the same time the centre of the horseshoe is exactly 1512 feet from the centre of the Octagon's circle embankment, on an azimuth angle of 84-degrees.

These last two clues are a "dead-giveaway" that the Great Pyramid is lurking here in the geometry, as 1512 feet is the sum total of two sides of the Great Pyramid. Alternatively, the base perimeter of the Great Pyramid is 84 feet X 36.

Figure 27: The Great Pyramid in double scale, 2-dimensional form, clearly complying to the geometry of the Octagon. The base runs from the centre hub position within the Octagon's circle embankment to the centre of the horseshoe circle. The apex of the Great Pyramid falls exactly on the line and circle convergence of the "1152" PHI square and circle, rotated 6.84-degrees.

Although a full pyramid was depicted in the site geometry at the Octagon as well as Stonehenge, it was well known to ancient architects that the Great Pyramid, as an essential design feature, had to have a flat top.
The 2-dimensional Great Pyramid depiction at Stonehenge appears to have had a marker to delineate this limit. The Octagon layout clearly shows that there was no capstone on the Great Pyramid and markers indicate a flat top limit at a height of 453.049492 feet (doubled to 906.098984 feet at the Octagon because of the double scaling). Let's see how the flat top limit was marked.

Figure 28: The yellow circle has a radius of 906.098984 feet...remember that the Great Pyramid depicted is in double scale to the real or actual pyramid and on the true pyramid the height to the altar floor was intended to be 453.049492 feet (168 MY of 32.360678 inches...or 280 PHI feet, which equated to 280 X 1 foot X PHI).

It will be noticed that a line going from the centre base of the Great Pyramid geometry, on an azimuth angle of exactly 67.2-degrees, terminates at the edge of the southern most of the small internal mounds. This placement or limit was clearly intended to convey the height of the Great Pyramid's altar floor. An added clue that this was the intention of the designers is found in the chosen degree angle...67.2-degrees.

Remember, the distance that we are positively dealing with between the base centre of the pyramid geometry and the face of the mound is 906.098984 feet and this PHI based distance, reduced to inches = 10873.18781 inches. This inch value, divided by 67.2-degrees = 161.80339...PHI is 1.6180339.
The distance of 906.098984 feet is also 336 Megalithic Yards of 32.360678 inches each.

What we are witnessing here is an area of the site where important numbers related to the 3 main geodetic, earth navigational systems were encoded. This researcher would assume that the face of the small internal mound would have formerly been marked to represent (doubled values of) 453.049492 feet, 453.6 feet and 453.75 feet, as these measures are imperative to the methods for calculating the size of the Earth under 3 separate grid referencing systems in use.

Archaeologists and Newark City surveyors should search for a marker or residues of a former marker, representing the midpoint between the centre of the Octagon's circle and the small horseshoe circle's centre.

Figure 29: Another flat topped Great Pyramid, created by the exacting geometry of the northern part of the site. As complex as this mishmash of squares and (some) circles might appear, they are based upon a very real PHI progression built into the site to focus on the pyramid's "flat floor" altar. This gives an insight into just how complex the Octagon analysis can become if one wishes to delve deeply into it.

As earlier stated, remembering the lengths 453.049492 feet, 453.6 feet and 453.75 feet was imperative to remembering the size of the Earth and how to grid reference it for navigation. A huge body of irreplaceable knowledge was tied to these numbers and world navigation would have been nigh impossible or fraught with difficulty if the numbers were ever lost.

The many ancient "worked out" mines across the United States and more particularly around the northern shore of Lake Superior, attest to the fact that huge quantities of (especially copper) were shipped out of the United States at some remote epoch.
Around the northern shore of Lake Superior there are about 5000 ancient copper mine workings, from which an estimated 500 million pounds of copper have been removed...and there is no evidence of what became of it. An ancient smelter was recently found in Oklahoma, but quickly buried by government teams to conceal its presence. For photos and descriptions of it, before its eradication by bulldozers, see

Figure 30: A simple way to demonstrate how the "453" number was encrypted into the site and the dimensions of the Great Pyramid preserved within the geometric coding of the structure. The 4 inward small mounds were used for a variety of calculations, amongst which were those related to 453.049492, 453.6 & 453.75.

A square with a radius of 453.049492 feet is shown with its corners encroaching onto the 4 mounds. If a full sized replica of the Great Pyramid is included (as shown) the 453.049492 feet radius square dissects its top at the altar line.

This square running between the mounds is subjected to a 1/2 PHI increase resulting in the next square outward, with apparent relationships to the gateways. Its radius is 560 feet and this number was very important to calculating solar, lunar and Sabbatical calendar cycles. Its double value (full side length) was 1120 feet and this is a part of what became the numerical progression related to the "Weights" system of many ancient civilisation (20 cwt of 112 lbs in a ton of 2240 lbs...etc).

A PHI increase on the 560 feet radius square delivers a radius of 906.098984 feet (2 X 453.049492 feet) and the "double scale" pyramid shown has its top dissected at the altar height by this process of a 1/2 PHI increase, followed be a PHI increase, on a square starting at 453.049492 feet radius.


At the middle region of the Octagon are 4 equidistant, 90-degrees opposed mounds, whose epicentres reside 921.6 feet from each other. The mounds were used for a large variety of calculations, which included everything from solar, lunar, calendar to navigational and land mapping endeavours.
Positions upon the mounds or, conceivably, in their very near vicinities, were marked to comply to 880, 900, 906.098984, 907.2, 907.5, 921.6, 945, 960 & 972 feet respectively.
From these numbers, almost every sought after calculation required by ancient astronomers and navigators could be derived.

Figure 31: Beyond being a repository for a multitude of astronomical, navigation and calendar codes, the Octagon had to function precisely for periodic fixes onto stellar targets. This picture shows the most used matrix for determining degree angles of targets alighting upon the embankment crests.

The centre squares (one offset 45-degrees from the other) have side lengths that are twice the height of the Khafre Pyramid or 945 feet per side. Although the 4 small mounds coded several squares that, size-wise, were closely related, it seems positive that this one was most used for degree angle determinations.
Its side length is exactly 90 reeds of 10.5 feet each, for a total of 360 reeds for all 4 sides. The total measurement of this square's perimeter is 3780 feet...and the Great Pyramid was 2 X 378 feet per side.
Each side of the square takes in 90-degrees of azimuth sweep around the horizon and provides a perfectly calibrated line from which to triangulate onto targets.

The main means of doing accurate degree angle readings was provided by a circle further out, the radius of which was two 1/2 PHI increases on the radius of this square. That circle, which is seen to interrelate with the embankments, has a radius of 721.9158405 feet (diameter 1443.831681 feet). This translates fluidly into a circumference of 4536 feet.

The number 4536 is extremely important to the sexagesimal geodetic, Earth navigational system and under that calibration the recognised height of the Great Pyramid is 453.6 feet.

A circle with a circumference value of 4536 feet is also 432 reeds or 1680 rounded MY. The Great Pyramid was 432 Royal Cubits of 21 inches each per side. It's height was 168 Megalithic Yards of 32.360678 inches each under its pure PHI assignment or 168 rounded MY under its symbolic sexagesimal assignment.

The circumference value of 4536 feet also reduces by, what is now known as "Egyptian Royal Cubits". These strangely sized rods were found to be 20.618 inches in length (Turin Museum collection) but were intended to be, more precisely, 20.61818182 inches for the sexagesimal one. The circumference of 4536 feet equates to 2640 Egyptian Royal Cubits of 20.61818182 inches. These were mnemonic devices for remembering the circumference and diameter of the Earth. The Great Pyramid @ 756 feet per side was also 440 Egyptian Royal Cubits of 20.61818182 inches. This length is fully a member of the family of measurements that later became known as the British Standard of Measurement, but it, like the reed, fell into disuse and was eventually lost in Britain.

Figure 32: The Egyptian Royal Cubit rod, which was fully a part of (what later became) the "British Standard of Measurement". It had a customised function for remembering and calculating the size of the Earth and was built to that specific ratio. This one shown, from the Turin collection, has an official length of 20.618 inches. Its refined value, under the sexagesimal geodetic system, was calculated mathematically to be 20.61818182 inches.

The number 2640, which occurs in conjunction with the Egyptian Royal Cubit/ 4536 circle calibration at the Octagon, is a part of a mathematical progression...132, 264, 528 that accentuates the "mile" increment.
From a viewing position in the centre of the Octagon a "plane table and alidade sighting rule" would be carefully positioned so that it was precisely centred. A target star would descend and alight on the crest of an embankment and its position marked with a stone according to instructions relayed by the observer situated at the centre of the site.

In good light conditions the next day, a rope would be stretched from the "viewing hub" position to the embankment position of the stellar marker stone.

It is assumed that the 4536 feet circumference circle would once have been clearly marked by post or stone positions, with, perhaps a marker at each "degree position" (12.6 feet...1.2 reeds). Every 2.52 inches between posts would represent 1-minute of arc. Note: The Great Pyramid @ 756 feet per side was 252 X 3 feet in length.

This method of using site centre as the hub or viewing position was perfectly feasible...but the majority of sightings were, undoubtedly, taken from precise positions associated with all 8 gateways.

Figure 33: The geometric template for taking very accurate stellar angle fixes at the Octagon. Note the small red dot in the embankment gateway to the SE. This was one of 8 primary stations for taking sightings onto stars alighting on the embankment crests.

With an observatory as large as the Octagon, it's safe to assume that its builders would optimise the site and get the most accurate possible fixes from it.
The achievable accuracy of a stellar fix rises exponentially to the distance between the observer and where the target star is made to alight on an interim structure within or beyond the observatory.

At the Octagon it makes sense to use the full expanse of the site, from a gateway to embankments on the distant, opposite side of the complex, to achieve greater accuracy.
In the above picture a red dot sits on a point that is, simultaneously, on a line extending across a small mound the circle that is two 1/2 PHI increases on the central square.

On this intersecting position another circle (@ twice the diameter) is centred and it has the effect of sweeping wonderfully through the embankments at the opposite side of the site.
It can be readily seen that the two opposite embankments were based upon this larger circle and represent linear expressions of a circle edge with a diameter of 2887.475805 feet (radius 1443.737902 feet).

The intended circumference of the circle was 9072 feet (one side of the Great Pyramid was 9072 inches) and each two embankments that the arc ran through gave a calibrated azimuth sweep of 48-degrees or 1209.6 feet of the circle's outer circumference, with each degree equating to 25.2 feet.

Note: the Great Pyramid was 30 X 25.2 feet in length. The number of inches in 25.2 feet is 302.4...the Great Pyramid was 3024 feet in perimeter.
On this circle, with 25.2 feet representing 1-degree of arc, a minute of arc was 5.04 inner part of the altar floor calculation matrix atop the Great Pyramid would have been laid out to 42 feet per side...or 504 inches.

Figure 34: The sweep of azimuth for observation onto the north-western embankments was through a range of 48-degrees. The observer stood on the edge of a circle with a circumference of 4536 feet to determine the alighting position of a star, planet, moon or sun.

Each 2 embankments were calibrated to be a combined length of 1260 feet (2 Greek stadiums of 630 feet each), between post markers in the gate openings. This same length is 120 reeds or 2.5 reeds per degree of arc along the embankments. It's highly likely that the banks were marked per degree of arc difference.

The value of 2.5 reeds equates to 26.25 feet, which is a strong lunar code. The inner Sarsen circle at Stonehenge was 26.25 feet for each 12-degrees (2.5 lintels).
The embankments (symbolically 630 feet between post markers, but actually more like 625 feet each in true length) could easily have been used in triangulation calculations in conjunction with the matrix "square" that ran between the small internal mounds.

Figure 35: Using a station set in the Avenue entrance to make degree angle determinations on alighting stars to the northeast. There were 4 stations like this, where the embankments were at a lesser angle to each other... and another 4 stations where the embankment angles were more pronounced.

Figure 36: The observation sweep north across embankments that dogleg away from each other at a far more pronounced angle. The amount of azimuth range within this sweep is 45-degrees.

Figure 37: Another sample of viewing across embankments set at the more exaggerated angle from each other. This sweep of the skyline is the eastern orientation. As always, under this calibration, the station for observation is set precisely on the rim of the 4536 feet circumference circle and the range of sweep is 45-degrees of horizon. Note how the vector limits of this sweep conjunct with the edges of the inner mounds.

Figure 38: Two circles are shown (blue and red) brushing the horns of the altar at the southwestern extremity of the site. The blue one, centred on the Avenue station and designated by the rim of the 9072 feet (4536 X 2) circumference circle, brushes past the altar horns within an error of 2 feet. Alternatively, the red circle, with a radius of 2160 feet and centred in the middle section of the octagonal half of the site, misses the horns by as little as 9.5 inches in their present, dilapidated condition.

It is the view of this researcher that the horns, in their original pristine condition, would have coded both numbers, as both are of extreme importance to the ancient systems of navigation and lunar coding simultaneously. The diameter of the moon is 2160 miles and this number is also 1/12th of 25920-years (the duration of the precession of the equinoxes). In other words, 2160 years represents how long the precessing sun will spend in each house of the zodiac before entering another house, during the 25920-year cycle.
In the sexagesimal navigational coding 1/2160th of the size of the Earth was 60480 feet (10 minutes of arc)...the Great Pyramid had a perimeter value of 3024 feet (1/2 of 6048 feet).

Figure 39: The blue circle, with a circumference of 9072 feet sweeps to within 2 feet of the 1959 Engineer's plan depiction of the altar horns. The red circle comes to within 10 inches. It's fair to assume that lower base levels of the horns comply with both sweeps and that the ancient builders encoded both important numbers into the horns. Something like five thousand years of weathering and more recent centuries of abandonment, neglect and abuse have taken their toll.
The small red circles shown in the above picture represent surveying points from the plan of surveyor, James A. Marshall...overlaid onto the 1959 City Engineer's plan.


Up until this point in our investigations, all analysis has been devoted to wide expanses of terrain and this has had the effect of minimising potential error in the identification of codes. Unfortunately mound structures don't provide finitely marked positions, like those found on standing stone circles sites.
A saving grace for the Newark Octagon and circle structure is borne out of its immense size, wherein the chances of identifying the intended codes correctly rise exponentially with increased dimensions.
Of this redeeming factor, surveyor James A. Marshall states, 'On intact works the centreline of the curved or straight embankment is easily determined. Assuming another surveyor would call the centreline several inches different from where I would call it, this would cause a reduction or increase in a 500 or 600 foot radius circle of only about 1 part in a thousand. On the badly eroded works an unlikely error as great as 5 feet would still yield data accurate to about one percent'.

We will now move our attention to the smaller horseshoe embankment circle, wherein identifying the correct intended codes and overall purpose of the structure could prove somewhat more difficult because of the lesser dimensions we're dealing with.
Working in our favour is the large expanse, exterior geometry converging upon this point, which has the effect of clarifying the intended codes built into the horseshoe circle by its ancient architects.

Figure 40: The small horseshoe circle, situated beyond the SSE embankment of the Octagon. It is strategically placed to reside at coded distances from other major stations of the Octagon complex and displays attributes that would lend themselves well as a "teaching" location for apprentices of the astronomical and navigational arts.

Let's review what we know about this area so far and see if a fuller understanding is possible.

Figure 41: It appears that the centre hub of the horseshoe was "fixed" by circle geometry fanning out from the two major centres of the Octagon structure, namely its circle and octagonal components. From the circle embankment's centre the distance to the centre of the horseshoe was intended to be 1512 feet (twice the base length of the Great Pyramid) at an azimuth angle of 84-degrees. This is shown by the vertical, curved blue line, which represents a circle of 1512 feet radius. The 180-degrees opposed angle, from the small horseshoe back to the circle embankment hub, is 264-degrees (which is half of 528 and codes numerical values related to the "mile" and navigation). The 264 numerical code was clearly demonstrated at Stonehenge where the "Station Stones" rectangle was 264 feet wide.

The other circle (red), designating the hub position of the horseshoe, emanates out from the centre of the "octagonal" component of the Octagon. This circle has a radius of 850.5 feet, which is 315 rounded MY or 81 reeds. The diameter of such a circle is loaded with major coded values...1701 feet, 630 rounded MY & 162 reeds.

The 1701 feet represent 1701-days, which is 1/4th of the lunar nutation cycle of 6804-days. The 630 number was the basis of the Greek stadia measurement and "630" is much used amongst the 4-square miles of embankment structures in Newark Ohio. The distance between the Octagon's circle and the Great Circle (showgrounds) embankment ESE, is 6300 feet (10 Greek stadia) centre to centre. The 162 reeds value is in deference to rounded PHI @ 1.62 or for mnemonic recall of true PHI @ 1.6180339.

As a further compelling clue that these locating circles were significant to fixing the centre hub of the horseshoe, one need only look at how the red circle dissects the centre of the doorway or the blue circle slits the horseshoe into two equal halves.

A third proof that this is the "hub" position is provided by the "centre crest" offset squares running along the centre line of the embankments. The size of these offset squares is determined by two 1/2 PHI increases on a square of 472.5 feet radius... the size of the central template square relating to 4 internal mound positions. A magenta line, intersecting with the red and blue circles, represents one of the PHI based squares.

Figure 42: The old Levitical law of the Bible requires that, "Out of the mouths of two or three witnesses shall every word be established", which became a tenet of British common law for establishing "truth". In the above picture 3 very precise and exacting elements of geometry converge upon one point of the small horseshoe's central region to establish beyond doubt its mathematically designated hub position.

The horseshoe embankment site appears to have been constructed with a slightly offset centre position. The 3 elements of geometry designating its hub seem to nominate a position about 4 feet too far north of what looks to be the best description of a true centre...let's endeavour to find out why.

Figure 43: Two plausible codes that might have related to an estimated true centre (situated 4 feet south of the geometrically designated position).
The yellow circle has a radius of 68.04 feet, alluding to the lunar nutation cycle, whereas the green circle is 67.2 feet in radius, which has special meaning to the Great Pyramid's height, PHI, "Y" holes at Stonehenge and the Menkaure Pyramid's base length.

Figure 44: In consideration of the overall shape of the horseshoe circle, the above design concept appears to have been incorporated, which included one fully centred circle (blue) and offset circles veering north and south (overshooting 4 feet in each direction). The offset circles appear, strongly, to relate to the inner edge-line of small raised humps placed to the north and south. The reason for this inbuilt design becomes enticingly apparent when viewed from an astronomical/ navigational perspective.


The Earth rotates at 1000 miles per hour, on a tilted axis to its plane of revolution around the Sun. The tilt in the Earth is presently 23.5-degrees and this changes only marginally, by about 2.6-degrees back and forth (21.8-degrees minimum to 24.4-degrees maximum), within a period of 41,000-years.
Because of this tilt in the spinning Earth, we have our annual, opposite seasons between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

Another effect is that stars near the northern and southern horizon lines will dip below the horizon for, possibly, months on end and their reappearance heralds a predictable time segment within the annual cycle around the Sun.

The best description of what we would observe, when viewing the distant northern and southern horizon line for stars hovering there, is an undulating movement, throughout the year, of stars dipping and rising. Some stars are only visible in the summer, whereas others are only visible in the winter. For this reason, astronomical books represent the annually viewable sky, not as a perfect circle but more as an the following manner:

Figure 45: The Northern Hemisphere sky showing many of the constellations seasonally visible above the Octagon. The two offset circles indicate the range of constellations that can be seen between the Vernal & Autumn equinoxes. It is observed that a single, perfect circle does not describe the effect of seasonally viewing stars near the northern & southern horizons, but that the true effect is more of a lumbering, undulating movement. Some constellations dip out of view for extended periods and may only be seen between particular months.

The range of stars that can or cannot be seen depends upon the latitude of the observer. We have stars in the Southern Hemisphere, which will never be seen by observers at particular latitudes of the North and vice-versa.

This knowledge was tremendously important to ancient astronomers, or navigators using zenith stars for positional fixes while traversing the globe. The design attributes of the small horseshoe circle suggest that the ebbing and waning star tide effect was being taught to initiates within this appendage structure to the greater Octagon and that the tutorial included what was observable in the Southern Hemisphere as well...thus the southern (estimated 8 feet offset) circle sweeping the embankment southward in the same manner as from the true hub position sweeping northward.